To Be Equipped To Face The Future Alone

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Способы выражения будущего времени в английском. Теория и упражнения

To Be Equipped To Face The Future Alone

В английском языке существует несколько способов выражения будущего времени (ways of expressing future actions). Отработке данных способов посвящен данный урок Затонской А.С.

Автор материала: Затонская Анастасия Станиславовна, педагог дополнительного образования Дворца творчества детей и молодежи г. Ростова-на-Дону, кандидат филологических наук.

Способы выражения будущего времени в английском языке

Для выражения будущего времени в английском языке необходимо использовать один из следующих способов:

Использование одного из времен Future (will + нужная форма глагола)

Future SimpleFuture ContinuousFuture PerfectFuture Perfect Continuous
Will+VWill be +VingWill have +V3Will have been +Ving
a) предсказания по поводу будущего со словами think, believe, expect, etcb) решения, принятые в момент говоренияс) обещанияd) действия, которые точно произойдут в будущема) действия, которые будут длиться в момент будущегоа) действия, которые закончатся до момента в будущемa) действия, которые будут длиться до момента в будущем 
I think the weather will be rainy tomorrow.Tomorrow at 5pm I will be flying to Riga.I will have read this article by 5pm.By 3pm tomorrow I will have been running for 50 minutes in our city marathon.

Использование the Present Simple Tense.

Present Simple используется для выражения будущего в следующих речевых ситуациях:

  • В разговорах о расписании (событий / транспорта),
  • В разговорах о графиках (мероприятий),
  • Относительно программ (мероприятий / передач на радио и тв)

Примеры:

The train leaves at 5pm in the evening.

The meeting begins at 8 sharp tomorrow.

Hockey is at 6pm. 

Использование the Present Continuous Tense.

Present Continuous используется для выражения будущего времени в следующих речевых ситуациях:

  • для выражения запланированного на ближайшее будущее действия (особенно с глаголами движения),

Пример:

I'm flying to Kongo next Monday. — Я лечу в Конго в следующий понедельник.

Использование фраз to be going to, to be about to.

О данном способе выражения будущего времени подробно написано в статье Конструкция be going to. 

Думаю, в рамках данной темы Вам полезно будет также обратить внимание на следующие статьи:

Ways of expressing the future action. Схемы и таблицы

Предлагаю несколько схем и таблиц, которые помогут Вам лучше разобраться в особенностях использования различных способов выражения будущего времени.

Таблица 1.

Таблица 2.

Способы выражения будущего времени в английском. Упражнения

Как и все упражнения из цикла уроков Затонской А.С., следующие упражнения основаны на определенной лексической теме. В данном случае, помимо отработки грамматики, мы отработаем еще и лексику по теме Travelling.  

Grammar: the ways of expressing the future action (the Future Simple Tense, the Future Continuous Tense, the Present Simple Tense, the Present Continuous Tense, phrases: to be going to, to be about to).

Lexical topic: Traveling.

Exercise 1. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the proper Tense. Remember that you should use the Future Simple Tense if you speak about the action or succession of actions which will take place in future; if you speak about the action which will be in progress in some moment in future you should use the Future Continuous Tense. You can also use the Present Tenses.

  1. … you (to go) to the booking office to buy the tickets? – No, I (to phone) them.
  2. I am sure he (to be busy) when you (to come). – What makes you think so? – He (to pack) his luggage for the trip. – Really? … he (to go) anywhere?
  3. I am going to visit you in July! I really want to see Jimmy – I haven’t seen him for ages! – Don’t even hope. When you come Jimmy (to travel) in a month-long cruise over Europe.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences.

  1. When he arrives at St. Petersburg …
  2. He will buy the tickets for the express train when …
  3. When his parents come at his place …
  4. When you come at his place next Friday your visit will be quite place because he…
  5. They will be going sightseeing when …
  6. When he waits at the railway station tomorrow …
  7. He will be hiking when …
  8. When the summer comes …

Exercise 3. Translate into English.

  1. Когда придет лето, он будет путешествовать на корабле по Средиземному морю.
  2. Ты пойдешь меня провожать? – Конечно! С какого вокзала ты уезжаешь? – С главного. Поезд 12, вагон 7. Хорошо! Я не опоздаю!
  3. Ты знаешь, что к тебе собирается Олег? – Да, это не слишком удачно: когда он придет, я как раз буду собирать чемоданы.
  4. Куда ты поедешь на каникулы?

Exercise 4. Describe step by step how you hurriedly pack your things and something disturbs you from this. Don’t forget that you can use such phrases as “to be about to”, “to be going to” when you speak about the immediate future.

The pattern: “I am going to pack my things. I am just about to write a list if things when I realize I have no pen. … “

Exercise 5. You and your friends are going travelling at approximately the same time but to different places. Discuss what you are going to take with you, how you are going to spend the time there, give each other pieces of advice.

Exercise 6. Translate into English.

  1. Ты уже знаешь, где ты проведешь лето? – Да, я поеду на море, как и в прошлом году. – Ты собираешься набрать столько же чемоданов? – Нет, в этот раз постараюсь быть осторожнее с багажом. А куда едешь ты? – Мой маршрут прост: сначала мы с друзьями пойдем в поход, а потом я поеду к родственникам в деревню – буду плавать в речке и загорать на солнышке в деревенской глуши.
  2. Муж, жена и четверо их детей провели уикенд в деревне. Вечером, возвращаясь, они решили взять такси. «За сколько вы довезете нас до Ленокс-Стрит?» – спросил муж. «Вас и жену за два доллара; детей возьму бесплатно» – ответил водитель. «Отлично, ребята» — сказал отец, — «Вы поезжайте домой, а мы с мамой поедем на метро».
  3. Пассажир самолета спрашивает стюардессу: «А вы будете раздавать нам парашюты?» – «Конечно, нет» — «Но ведь на кораблях дают спасательные круги!» – «Но ведь мы же не в море!» — «Да, но количество лиц, умеющих плавать, гораздо больше, чем количество лиц, умеющих летать!»

Exercise 7. Describe your plans for the summer.

Exercise 8. What will travelling be in future, from your point of view? Describe it according to the following plan:

  • reasons for travelling;
  • season and longevity of travelling;
  • means of transport;
  • places to stay in;
  • sightseeing; entertainment.

Надеюсь, Вам понравился этот урок и вы разобрались в способах выражения будущего времени в английском языке.

Сохраните на будущее и поделитесь с друзьями!

Источник: http://grammar-tei.com/sposoby-vyrazheniya-budushhego-vremeni-v-anglijskom-teoriya-i-uprazhneniya/

Future Simple Tense

To Be Equipped To Face The Future Alone

Несмотря на относительную простоту образования форм, со временем Future Simple связано множество заблуждений. Когда мы слышим «будущее действие», на ум сразу приходит will, то есть Future Simple.

Поэтому многие склонны думать, что will может передавать любое действие в будущем. Это не так. А те, кто давно изучал английский, до сих пор по привычке используют shall.

Сегодня мы подробно остановимся на использовании времени Future Simple и развенчаем все заблуждения.

Форма и образование

В отличие от остальных времен английского языка, в Future Simple никогда ничего не меняется в зависимости от рода и числа.

Форма неизменна: WILL + V1 (глагол в первой форме):

IYouHe/ She/ ItWeTheyWILLgo on holiday.be rich one day.call you later.buy a new car.listen to music.

WILL часто сокращается до 'll: I’ll, she’ll, we’ll.

В отрицательных предложениях к вспомогательному глаголу will добавляем отрицательную частицу not. Получаем WILL NOT или сокращенно: WON'T. Будьте внимательны, сокращение читается [wəunt] (не путать с want [wɔnt]).

IYouHe/ She/ ItWeTheyWILL NOT(WON’T)go on holiday.call you later.be rich one day.buy a new car.listen to music.

Вопросительная форма образуется путем вынесения вспомогательного глагола will перед подлежащим:

WILLIyouhe / she / itwetheygo on holiday?buy a new car?call them?answer this e-mail?accept an offer?

Не забывайте, что к подлежащему могут относиться несколько слов, и will стоит перед первым из них:

His best friend will arrive tomorrow. – WILL his best friend arrive tomorrow?

Рассмотрим случаи употребления Future Simple в английском.

  • Простые действия и факты в будущем (Simple actions and facts in the future):

I'll be at home in the evening. – Я буду дома вечером.

The teacher will explain this topic tomorrow. – Учитель объяснит эту тему завтра.

  • Повторяющиеся действия в будущем (Repeated actions in the future):

In autumn I will go to school every day. – Осенью я буду ходить в школу каждый день.

He will take these pills in the morning. – Он будет принимать эти таблетки по утрам.

  • Последовательные действия в будущем (Series of events in the future):

Если к одному и тому же подлежащему относятся несколько действий, то will используем один раз:

Tomorrow I will go to the library and borrow some books. – Завтра я пойду в библиотеку и возьму книги.

Mother will cook the dinner and we will eat together. – Мама приготовит ужин и мы поедим вместе.

  • Прогнозы относительно будущего, основанные на личном мнении, ожиданиях, надеждах и т.д. (Predictions one’s opinion, hopes and expectations)

Future Simple используется, когда мы высказываем свое предположение о будущем действии, основываясь на собственных соображениях, ожиданиях. Поэтому Future Simple используется с глаголами think (думать), believe (считать), doubt (сомневаться), expect (ожидать), hope (надеяться), наречиями probably (вероятно), maybe (может быть), certainly (безусловно), perhaps (возможно) и фразами:

I’m sure… – Я уверен…

I’m certain… – Я убежден …

There is no doubt… – Несомненно …

I’m afraid … – Боюсь, что … и другими

I think  I’ll be rich one day. – Я думаю, когда-нибудь я разбогатею.

I am sure her new song will become famous soon. – Я уверен, что ее новая песня скоро станет известной.

There is no doubt that they will come next week. – Несомненно, они приедут на следующей неделе.

I don’t know yet what I will do tomorrow. Maybe I’ll go shopping. – Я еще не знаю, что я буду делать завтра. Может быть, я поеду за покупками.

  • Спонтанные решения и действия (On-the-spot decisions, spontaneous actions):

Future Simple – средство выражения действий, о которых говорящий заранее не знал. Чаще всего это решения, принятые непосредственно в момент речи.

– Are you ready to order? – Yes, I will take a sandwich and a coffee. – Вы готовы заказывать? – Да, я возьму сендвич и кофе. I didn’t ask her about the time. I’ll call her once again. – Я не спросила ее о времени. Я позвоню ей еще раз. Look at that wonderful bag! I will buy it immediately! – Посмотри на ту замечательную сумку! Я куплю ее сейчас же!

I won’t drive that way. There is a traffic jam! – Я туда не поеду. Там пробка!

Если хотите пообещать кому-нибудь что-нибудь, используйте Future Simple. Можете добавить I promise:

I will always be with you. – Я всегда буду с тобой. I will pay you back next month. – Я верну тебе долг в следующем месяце.

We won’t be late again. – Мы больше не будем опаздывать.

Future Simple для выражения угроз используется в каждом голливудском боевике:

Don’t move or I’ll kill you! – Не двигайся или я тебя убью!

I’ll call the police if you don’t stop! – Я позвоню в полицию, если ты не остановишься!

  • Предостережения (Warnings):

Don’t touch the kettle, it’s hot! You’ll burn yourself! – Не прикасайся к чайнику, он горячий! Ты обожжешься!

Be careful with the knife or you'll cut yourself. – Будьте осторожны с ножом иначе вы порежетесь.

Просьбы в английском языке передаются вопросительными предложениями с will:

Will you help me? – Поможете мне?

Will you open the window? – Откроете окно?

  • Действия, которые неизбежно произойдут, на которые мы не можем повлиять (Actions that are definitely to happen, which we cannot control):

Tomorrow will be Thursday. – Завтра будет четверг.

My brother will be eighteen next week. – Моему брату исполнится 18 на следующей неделе.

  • В условных предложениях первого типа (Conditional 1)

Подробнее об использовании Future Simple в условных предложениях первого типа читайте здесь. 

Использование SHALL

Shall, согласно традиционному правилу английского языка, является наряду с will вспомогательным глаголом времени Future Simple и используется с формами первого лица (I, we).

В современном английском языке shall в качестве вспомогательного глагола почти не употребляется, а если кто-то его и использует, то это звучит архаично и очень формально.

Тенденция к упрощению языка и повсеместное использование сокращения 'll привели к тому, что will вытеснил shall.

Хотя shall в качестве вспомогательного глагола больше не является общепринятой нормой, но он употребляется в качестве модального глагола, выполняя свои специальные функции:

Offer – это когда вы предлагаете сделать что-либо для кого-либо:

Shall I help you? – Могу я вам помочь?

Shall I repeat it? – Мне повторить?

  • Предложения (Suggestions)

Suggestion (в отличие от offer) – предложение совместной деятельности. Shall we… ? служит альтернативой Let’s:

Shall we go out for a meal in the evening? – Пойдем поедим где-нибудь вечером?

Shall we watch a new movie? – Посмотрим новый фильм?

  • Требования, приказы, правила, законы (Requirements, orders, rules, laws)

Shall может выражать требования, приказы, правила, законы,  когда употребляется с he, she, it, we, you, they.

Такое использование shall можно услышать от лиц, которые имеют право предъявлять требования к другим: полицейских, судей, учителей, родителей. Shall типичен для законодательных документов, контрактов и формального письма:

You shall not move. – Не двигаться! (Полицейский – преступнику.) You shall provide compensation for the spoilt equipment. – Вы предоставите компенсацию за испорченный инвентарь. (Судья – подсудимому.) They shall stay at home tonight. – Они останутся дома сегодня вечером. (Родитель о своих детях.)

He shall do all the tasks. – Он будет выполнять все задания. (Учитель об ученике.)

Указатели времени, которые используются с Future Simple:

Tomorrow – завтра
The day after tomorrow – послезавтра
Next week/ month/ summer/ year etc. – на следующей неделе; в следующем месяце/ году; следующим летом и т. д.
In a week/ month/ year – через неделю/ месяц/ год

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Источник: https://enginform.com/article/future-simple-tense

Are we well-equipped to future-proof nature?

To Be Equipped To Face The Future Alone

New scientific developments have the potential to help environmental managers, policy-makers and conservation groups to future-proof nature’s health, argue two studies published recently in the Journal of Applied Ecology.

The collaborative studies contend that our monitoring and management of the natural environment should include detecting interactions between ecological and human communities.

Scientists from six UK and international research institutions, universities and conservation organisations were involved.

The first study, led by Dr Bryan Spears of the UK’s Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, argues that thanks to the considerable efforts of researchers and citizen scientists, the data and tools to fuel this change in management are becoming readily available and should be harnessed more effectively.

Dr Spears said, “Our study presented a road map for achieving preventative management of nature to complement traditional restoration efforts. The cost estimates for restoration are high and may be as much as €11 billion per year at the EU scale.

Add to these costs the losses associated with extreme weather events, including floods and droughts, which are expected to increase with climate change, and it is clear that managing our environment to make it more resilient to future pressures will deliver significant economic benefits.”

The group assessed recent developments across multiple scientific fields and uncovered a suite of tools, from genetics to satellite earth observation, that allow resilience to be measured from the individual to the ecosystem scale.

“It is clear that managing our environment to make it more resilient to future pressures will deliver significant economic benefits.” Dr Bryan Spears, CEH

Co-author Dr Craig Allen of the US Geological Survey, said, “Monitoring and managing complex systems of people and nature will always be harder than managing individual species.

But anticipating and predicting the responses of ecosystems information about individual species, alone, is unly to be productive.

Techniques to monitor properties of systems that could serve as early warning indicators of deterioration, or indicate measures to build resilience, stand to increase our ability to rapidly and effectively respond to environmental change.”

The study concludes that it is essential that we also identify on-the-ground management measures that build ecological resilience within high value ecosystems to future threats. Large-scale experiments are required to support this.

Key role of long-term studies

A second study of more than 120 long-term records of waxes and wanes in the populations of more than 50 species, led by Dr Sarah Burthe of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology), showed that current indicators are not yet consistently predicting sudden changes in these populations. When ecosystems are approaching a point of collapse under stress, they become unstable, they wobble, and this can be detected using high frequency monitoring of plants and animals across many different ecosystems.

Dr Burthe said, “The development of reliable early warning indicators of sudden, undesirable ecosystem change is vital for the conservation of biodiversity. However, there is unly to be a “silver bullet” that meets this challenge.

Therefore, research should focus on developing a suite of indicators that together provide a powerful mechanism for predicting future change.

Long-term studies will play a key role in ensuring that these important new tools come to fruition.”

These findings highlight key opportunities to develop strategies for effective management of the natural world in the face of emerging threats such as climate change, pollution and the spread of non-native species. They also underscore the need for large-scale experimentation and continued monitoring of ecosystems to underpin the development of new approaches to safeguard those ecosystems upon which society relies.

“Research should focus on developing a suite of indicators that together provide a powerful mechanism for predicting future change. Long-term studies will play a key role in ensuring that these important new tools come to fruition.” Dr Sarah Burthe, CEH

David Johns, of The Sir Alister Hardy Foundation, said: “We’ve been monitoring the plankton community around the UK for over 70 years, and we have seen many significant changes.

Such changes have had profound effects higher up the food web, with most marine organisms relying on plankton for food.

This inter-connectivity creates a large problem when attempting to design indicators for marine policy usage, particularly when we have not been able to predict sudden ecological responses.”

The research was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council and carried out by staff from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the US Geological Survey, the University of Duisberg-Essen, the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science and The Tweed Foundation.

Photos: Scots pine (top of page): CEH is leading a project to find a long-term strategy for tree health. Arctic charr (above). Fish data from long-term monitoring of the Cumbrian Lakes were among data studied.

Additional information

Full paper references:

Bryan M Spears (1), Stephen C Ives (1), David G Angeler (2), Craig R Allen (3), Sebastian Birk (4), Laurence Carvalho (1), Stephen Cavers (1), Francis Daunt (1), R. Daniel Morton (1), Michael J. O. Pocock (1), Glenn Rhodes (1) and Stephen J Thackeray (1). 2015.

Effective management of ecological resilience – are we there yet? Journal of Applied Ecology. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12497. 1 Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, UK; 2 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; 3 U.S.

Geological Survey, USA; 4 Universitat Duisburg-Essen, Germany.

Sarah J Burthe (1), Peter A Henrys (1), Eleanor B Mackay (1), Bryan M Spears (1), Ronald Campbell (2), Laurence Carvalho (1), Bernard Dudley (1), Iain D M Gunn (1), David G Johns (3), Stephen C Maberly (1), Linda May (1), Mark A Newell (1), Sarah Wanless (1), Ian J. Winfield (1), Stephen J.

Thackeray (1) and Francis Daunt (1). 2015.  Do early warning indicators consistently predict non-linear change in long-term ecological data? Journal of Applied Ecology. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12519.

1 Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, UK; 2 The Tweed Foundation, UK; 3 Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, UK.

Staff page of Dr Bryan Spears

Источник: https://www.ceh.ac.uk/news-and-media/news/are-we-well-equipped-future-proof-nature

Fears and Phobias

To Be Equipped To Face The Future Alone

The roller coaster hesitates for a split second at the peak of its steep track after a long, slow climb. You know what's about to happen — and there's no way to avoid it now. It's time to hang onto the handrail, palms sweating, heart racing, and brace yourself for the wild ride down.

What Is Fear?

Fear is one of the most basic human emotions. It is programmed into the nervous system and works an instinct. From the time we're infants, we are equipped with the survival instincts necessary to respond with fear when we sense danger or feel unsafe.

Fear helps protect us. It makes us alert to danger and prepares us to deal with it. Feeling afraid is very natural — and helpful — in some situations. Fear can be a warning, a signal that cautions us to be careful.

all emotions, fear can be mild, medium, or intense, depending on the situation and the person. A feeling of fear can be brief or it can last longer.

How Fear Works

When we sense danger, the brain reacts instantly, sending signals that activate the nervous system. This causes physical responses, such as a faster heartbeat, rapid breathing, and an increase in blood pressure.

Blood pumps to muscle groups to prepare the body for physical action (such as running or fighting). Skin sweats to keep the body cool. Some people might notice sensations in the stomach, head, chest, legs, or hands.

These physical sensations of fear can be mild or strong.

This response is known as “fight or flight” because that is exactly what the body is preparing itself to do: fight off the danger or run fast to get away. The body stays in this state of fight–flight until the brain receives an “all clear” message and turns off the response.

Sometimes fear is triggered by something that is startling or unexpected ( a loud noise), even if it's not actually dangerous.

That's because the fear reaction is activated instantly — a few seconds faster than the thinking part of the brain can process or evaluate what's happening.

As soon as the brain gets enough information to realize there's no danger (“Oh, it's just a balloon bursting — whew!”), it turns off the fear reaction. All this can happen in seconds.

Fears People Have

Fear is the word we use to describe our emotional reaction to something that seems dangerous. But the word “fear” is used in another way, too: to name something a person often feels afraid of.

People fear things or situations that make them feel unsafe or unsure. For instance, someone who isn't a strong swimmer might have a fear of deep water. In this case, the fear is helpful because it cautions the person to stay safe. Someone could overcome this fear by learning how to swim safely.

A fear can be healthy if it cautions a person to stay safe around something that could be dangerous. But sometimes a fear is unnecessary and causes more caution than the situation calls for.

Many people have a fear of public speaking. Whether it's giving a report in class, speaking at an assembly, or reciting lines in the school play, speaking in front of others is one of the most common fears people have.

People tend to avoid the situations or things they fear. But this doesn't help them overcome fear — in fact, it can be the reverse. Avoiding something scary reinforces a fear and keeps it strong.

People can overcome unnecessary fears by giving themselves the chance to learn about and gradually get used to the thing or situation they're afraid of.

For example, people who fly despite a fear of flying can become used to unfamiliar sensations takeoff or turbulence. They learn what to expect and have a chance to watch what others do to relax and enjoy the flight.

Gradually (and safely) facing fear helps someone overcome it.

Fears During Childhood

Certain fears are normal during childhood. That's because fear can be a natural reaction to feeling unsure and vulnerable — and much of what children experience is new and unfamiliar.

Young kids often have fears of the dark, being alone, strangers, and monsters or other scary imaginary creatures. School-aged kids might be afraid when it's stormy or at a first sleepover. As they grow and learn, with the support of adults, most kids are able to slowly conquer these fears and outgrow them.

Some kids are more sensitive to fears and may have a tough time overcoming them. When fears last beyond the expected age, it might be a sign that someone is overly fearful, worried, or anxious. People whose fears are too intense or last too long might need help and support to overcome them.

Phobias

A phobia is an intense fear reaction to a particular thing or a situation. With a phobia, the fear is proportion to the potential danger. But to the person with the phobia, the danger feels real because the fear is so very strong.

Phobias cause people to worry about, dread, feel upset by, and avoid the things or situations they fear because the physical sensations of fear can be so intense.

So having a phobia can interfere with normal activities. A person with a phobia of dogs might feel afraid to walk to school in case he or she sees a dog on the way.

Someone with an elevator phobia might avoid a field trip if it involves going on an elevator.

A girl with a phobia of thunderstorms might be afraid to go to school if the weather forecast predicts a storm. She might feel terrible distress and fear when the sky turns cloudy. A guy with social phobia experiences intense fear of public speaking or interacting, and may be afraid to answer questions in class, give a report, or speak to classmates in the lunchroom.

It can be exhausting and upsetting to feel the intense fear that goes with having a phobia. It can be disappointing to miss out on opportunities because fear is holding you back. And it can be confusing and embarrassing to feel afraid of things that others seem to have no problem with.

Sometimes, people get teased about their fears. Even if the person doing the teasing doesn't mean to be unkind and unfair, teasing only makes the situation worse.

What Causes Phobias?

Some phobias develop when someone has a scary experience with a particular thing or situation.

A tiny brain structure called the amygdala (pronounced: uh-MIG-duh-luh) keeps track of experiences that trigger strong emotions.

Once a certain thing or situation triggers a strong fear reaction, the amygdala warns the person by triggering a fear reaction every time he or she encounters (or even thinks about) that thing or situation.

Someone might develop a bee phobia after being stung during a particularly scary situation. For that person, looking at a photograph of a bee, seeing a bee from a distance, or even walking near flowers where there could be a bee can all trigger the phobia.

Sometimes, though, there may be no single event that causes a particular phobia. Some people may be more sensitive to fears because of personality traits they are born with, certain genes they've inherited, or situations they've experienced. People who have had strong childhood fears or anxiety may be more ly to have one or more phobias.

Having a phobia isn't a sign of weakness or immaturity. It's a response the brain has learned in an attempt to protect the person. It's as if the brain's alert system triggers a false alarm, generating intense fear that is proportion to the situation. Because the fear signal is so intense, the person is convinced the danger is greater than it actually is.

Overcoming Phobias

People can learn to overcome phobias by gradually facing their fears. This is not easy at first. It takes willingness and bravery. Sometimes people need the help of a therapist to guide them through the process.

Overcoming a phobia usually starts with making a long list of the person's fears in least-to-worst order.

For example, with a dog phobia, the list might start with the things the person is least afraid of, such as looking at a photo of a dog.

It will then work all the way up to worst fears, such as standing next to someone who's petting a dog, petting a dog on a leash, and walking a dog.

Gradually, and with support, the person tries each fear situation on the list — one at a time, starting with the least fear. The person isn't forced to do anything and works on each fear until he or she feels comfortable, taking as long as needed.

A therapist could also show someone with a dog phobia how to approach, pet, and walk a dog, and help the person to try it, too. The person may expect terrible things to happen when near a dog. Talking about this can help, too. When people find that what they fear doesn't actually turn out to be true, it can be a great relief.

A therapist might also teach relaxation practices such as specific ways of breathing, muscle relaxation training, or soothing self-talk. These can help people feel comfortable and bold enough to face the fears on their list.

As somebody gets used to a feared object or situation, the brain adjusts how it responds and the phobia is overcome.

Often, the hardest part of overcoming a phobia is getting started. Once a person decides to go for it — and gets the right coaching and support — it can be surprising how quickly fear can melt away.

Источник: https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/phobias.html

Uncertainty Makes You Anxious? 3 Ways To Face The Future With Confidence

To Be Equipped To Face The Future Alone

Last Updated on June 13, 2019

Think you have a boring life?

The definition of boring is dull or not interesting. Maybe you’ve been doing the same thing and living the same life for too long, or maybe your daily routine is limiting your growth and happiness.

Whatever your reason is, the following list of 20 things can definitely make any day more interesting.

Some of them are silly, while some are more meaningful, so hopefully just reading the list makes your life less boring and sparks your creativity.

Let’s dive in the list to quit your boring life and start living an interesting (and meaning) one!

1. Channel Your 7-Year-Old Self

What would he or she want to do right now? Color? Paint? Run around outside? Play dress up? Eat with your hands? Play that instrument hiding in the back of your closet that you haven’t touched in years?

Just because you’re a grown up doesn’t mean any of this stuff will be less enjoyable than you remember it. Give yourself permission to play.

2. Go Play with Kids

Speaking of little kids, if you have your own or access to any (in a non-creepy way, they’re your niece or your best friend’s kid, you get the idea) go play with them!

They didn’t create an entire show called Kids Say The Darndest Things because kids aren’t hilarious. They also keep things so simple, and we can really stand to be reminded of this and stop allowing ourselves to get bogged down in boring details.

3. Order a Hot Dog

While you’re eating it, Google: “What’s in a hot dog?” You decide whether or not you want to finish it.

4. For the Ladies: Wear Your Sexiest Lingerie Under Your Work Clothes

Your “little secret” will leave you feeling anything but boring all day!

5. Play Cell Phone Roulette

You’ll need at least one buddy for this. Scroll through the contacts in your phone, stop on a random one and call the person.

You could spark an incredible catch up session or be incredibly awkward. Neither are boring.

6. Fill out a Pack of Thank-You Cards

Give them to random people who probably don’t get thanked too often for doing what they do ever day.

Ideas: police officers, librarians, servers, baristas, cab drivers, sanitation workers, teachers, people behind any check out counter, receptionists, your friends, the guy at the falafel stand, etc.

7. Sign up for a Class in Something You’ve “Always Wanted to Do”, or Something That Makes You Really Uncomfortable

Ideas: pole dancing, salsa lessons, improv, pottery, cooking, knitting (yup, there are classes for this, too!), karate, boxing, something techy the workshops they run in Apple stores, get Rosetta Stone and learn that language you’ve always wanted to speak, etc.

What’s good about joining an interest class is that you will also meet new people!

8. Interview Your Grandparents About Their Lives

You can bet they’ve had some crazy experiences you probably never knew about.

9. Get up on Stage at an Open Mic Night

Whether you’re funny or not, get up on stage and just talk funny. And if you’re not, memorize a few of your favorite jokes and tell those!

10. Do Something for Someone Else That You Wish Someone Would Do for You

We all have a few ideas on this list. I promise you will feel amazing after and anything but bored.

11. Start a DIY Project in Your Home

It doesn’t have to be super complicated. If you need ideas, there’re plenty on Pinterest. Or you can also check out these 30 Awesome DIY Projects that You’ve Never Heard of.

12. Plan a Weekend Trip or an All-Out Vacation

This will give you something to look forward to.

Even if you don’t have the time or money to go on a vacation, plan for a staycation, which is same fun and relaxing!

Scroll down to continue reading article

13. People Watch

Find a bench in a crowded area (centers of transportation airports, bus stops and train stations are great for this!) and just observe.

People are infinitely interesting.

14. Eat Something You’ve Never Eaten Before

Bonus points if it’s a random fruit or veggie.

15. Dance

You can get your friends together for a night on the town or just pull up a video on  and bust a move from your own living room.

If you’re feeling extra brave, you can even dance in public and get other people involved.

16. Go to and Search “Funny Pets” or “Funny Babies”

This is also a great quickie ab workout as you will be laughing hysterically.

17. Pick up a Book and Start Reading

Check out the NY Times Best Sellers lists and grab a new book you can get lost in.

18. Step Away from the Computer and Go Get Some Time with People You Care About in Real Life

stalking doesn’t count as real social interaction. You can even share this post with your friends and vote on which one you’d to do together!

19. Check out a Museum You’ve Never Been to Before

OK, depending on your interests, this one might actually be boring. If you love learning, art or different cultures though, this one is for you!

20. Write a List of Things You Desire and Truly Want

This is a great way to help you figure out the real reason why you’re feeling bored about your life. Maybe you haven’t really done things that you truly enjoy? Maybe what you’ve wanted to do all the time has been left behind?

Think about the list of things you really want to do, and ask yourself why you aren’t doing these things (yet). Then start taking your first step to make what you want happen.

Now go make your life interesting and live your dream life!

More About Living a Fulfilling Life

Featured photo credit: Kev Costello via unsplash.com

Источник: https://www.lifehack.org/503871/uncertainty-makes-you-anxious-3-ways-to-face-the-future-with-confidence

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