Prayer For A Fuller Understanding Of The Meaning Of The Cross
Why do Catholics make the Sign of the Cross?
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The sign of the cross permeates a Catholic’s prayer life, from the public prayer of the Mass to private prayer around the dining room table. The priest opens Mass by leading the congregation in the Sign of the Cross.
At the end of the Mass, he blesses the people “in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit,” and they cross themselves as he blesses them. At home, when Catholics pray before meals, they usually open and close the prayer by making the sign of the cross.
In Catholic schools, the prayers the school prays in common usually begin and end with the sign of the cross.
The sign of the cross often introduces and closes other prayers, but it is a prayer in itself and can also be prayed on its own. Sometimes Catholics make the sign of the cross, with or without words, at other times as well.
Many Catholics will cross themselves when they pass by a Catholic church or chapel where the Eucharist is present. Some may make the sign as they drive past a cemetery as a quick prayer for the dead who are buried there.Sometimes Catholics may make a quick Sign of the Cross when receiving bad news, or when sirens pass, as a way of praying for those involved.
Praying the sign of the cross is so common that we often rush through it without thinking much about it. But the sign of the cross is an ancient tradition with deep theological meaning.
How to do the Sign of the Cross
From childhood, Catholics are taught to make the sign of the cross, saying:
“In the name of the Father, [while touching the right hand to the forehead]and of the Son, [moving the hand to the chest]and of the Holy Spirit. [touching one shoulder, then the other]
You’ve probably seen your Catholic friends do it or at least you’ve ly seen it on TV as it is often referenced.
The History of the Sign of the Cross
The first “sign of the cross” that early Christians made was tracing a small cross on their foreheads.
Around the year 200, Tertullian, an early Christian theologian, wrote about this sign: “In all our travels and movements, in all our coming in and going out, in putting on our shoes, at the bath, at the table, in lighting our candles, in lying down, in sitting down, whatever employment occupies us, we mark our forehead with the sign of the cross.” By the fifth century, other Christian writers reveal that the sign of the cross was also being made on the lips and on the chest. Over time, Christians began making large crosses over their bodies as Catholics do today. It is unknown exactly when and how that developed, but the sign of the cross as we know it today is probably about 1000 years old.
The Theological Meaning of the Sign of the Cross
The sign of the cross, in words and in action, reminds us of the two central realities of our faith: who God is (the Trinity) and what God has done for us (the Cross). These are the core of why Catholics do the sign of the cross. Let’s examine these both in more detail.
When we pray “in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit,” we are invoking the Trinity.
While many religions teach belief in God, Christianity is unique in its belief that the one God is a Trinity of Persons.
This is a great mystery that not even the most intelligent theologian or the holiest saint could ever fully comprehend. We only know that God is a Trinity because God revealed this to us.
What we mean when we say that God is a Trinity is that there is one divine nature, one divine substance. A “substance” or “nature” is what something is. God, as a Trinity, exists in three Persons. A person is “who” someone is. In our experience, one human person each possesses one human nature.
A husband and wife, no matter how closely united, are still two separate beings. In God, however, three Persons possess the same divine nature. If you were to ask each Person in the Trinity, “Who are you?” each person would answer something differently: “I am the Father;” “I am the Son;” “I am the Holy Spirit.
” If you were to ask each Person, “What are you?” you would get the same answer from each Person: “I am God.”
The sign of the cross both reminds us of who God is and invites God into our prayer and into our lives.
While our words in the prayer of the sign of the cross are an invocation of the Trinity, the shape of the cross we make during this prayer are a reminder of the cross of Christ. Jesus’ death on the cross was the action by which he destroyed death, so the sign of the cross is a constant reminder of our salvation.
The Power of the Sign of the Cross
From the earliest days of the Church, Christians understood that the cross of Christ has great power.
Even the sign of the cross is powerful because it is a reminder of the instrument Jesus used to defeat Satan.
Tertullian (see above) recommended that the faithful mark themselves with the sign of the cross at all times because of its power in bringing Jesus’ sacrifice into their daily lives.
St. Cyril of Jerusalem expresses the power of the Cross very well:Be the Cross our seal made with boldness by our fingers on our brow, and on everything; over the bread we eat, and the cups we drink; in our comings in, and goings out; before our sleep, when we lie down and when we rise up; when we are in the way, and when we are still. … It is the Sign of the faithful, and the dread of devils… for when they see the Cross they are reminded of the Crucified; they are afraid of Him, who bruised the heads of the dragon. (Catechetical Lecture 13)
The sign of the cross is a powerful way of making us mindful of the Trinity and inviting God into our prayer and into our daily lives.
It brings the power of Christ’s cross to us and can be a powerful help against temptation and an excellent way of reminding us of the great things Jesus has done for us.
Pray the sign of the cross often and be mindful of what it means in the life of the Church and in your own life!
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A Catholic Guide to Understanding The Bible
Too many Catholics aren’t comfortable reading and understanding the Bible.
Let’s look at the most essential principles taught by the Catholic Church for reading and interpreting Scripture.
For a strong faith, it’s important to know this!
The Bible is uniquely important
The Holy Bible is unmatched in importance for learning about God, his plans for us, and how he has worked through human history for our salvation.
Pope John Paul II wrote:[Sacred Scripture] is truly divine, because it belongs to God truly and genuinely: God himself inspired it, God confirmed it, God spoke it through the sacred writersMoses, the Prophets, the Evangelists, the Apostlesand, above all, through his Son, our only Lord, in both the Old and the New Testament.
It is true that the intensity and depth of the revelation varies [within the Bible], but there is not the least shadow of contradiction [between different parts of Scripture].
(Pope John Paul II, Apostolic Letter _Patres Ecclesiae_,
January 2, 1980)
Since God inspired & confirmed the Bible, we had better know how to read it correctly!
Key principles for reading Scripture
These three points are essential to a basic understanding of the bible:1 God is indeed the principal author of Sacred Scripture.
1 God made use of specific people that wrote in a human language, and did so at a particular time and place in history.
1 At times we have to work carefully to determine exactly what a sacred author is asserting to be true, distinguishing that from something he’s using as an image to help us understand the truth more clearly.
We need to look at each of these points in detail…
If there is only one thing you remember about understanding the Bible, let it be this point!
To get it just right, I’ll quote from the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church:
God himself is the author of Sacred Scripture.
(Compendium of the Catechism, #18)
(The Compendium of the Catechism has a wonderful section on understanding the Bible within the part about Divine Revelation. You should read all of #6-24 to get a full understanding, but #18-24 are specifically about Scripture.)
God chose to reveal to us certain truths for the sake of our salvation. This message of salvation is the set of revealed truths which we call the “deposit of faith,” or Divine Revelation. The Bible is primarily concerned with telling us these truths, which are without error. God himself made sure of that.
The Second Vatican Council (Vatican II) said it well: “everything asserted by the inspired authors or sacred writers must be held to be asserted by the Holy Spirit” (Dei Verbum, #11).
Good. That’s the most essential point for reading & understanding the Bible. Now, remember that point as we look at some other details…
God made use of people to write the Bible
This is important: God did not “dictate” the Bible, word for word, to people who just wrote down his words. Instead, he did something…
He made use of specific people to write the various sacred books of the Bible. And although God gave each author special grace to aid him in this work, each author wrote in a way that was natural to him.
This is also really important for a true Catholic understanding of the Bible. We have to understand this point completely, or we risk a serious misunderstanding!
The Second Vatican Council put it this way:In composing the sacred books, God chose men and while employed by Him they made use of their powers and abilities, so that with Him acting in them and through them, they, as true authors, consigned to writing everything and only those things which He wanted.
(Vatican II, Dei Verbum (Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation), 11)
These writers used the language of their time, and they used words and wrote in a style that reflected their own personalities and educations.
Some people get nervous when they start reading about this point—don’t be! This is important for a solid understanding of the Bible.
Let’s summarize it this way:1 These men had to work with the imperfections of human language and understanding.1 Despite this limitation, the Holy Spirit still used them to write the message of salvation in a way that was completely accurate.
John Paul II made this point when he addressed the Pontifical Biblical Commission in 1979:
The language of the Bible is to some degree linked to language which changed over the course of time…. But this only reaffirms the paradox of the [Christian] proclamation of revelation: …people and events at particular points in history become the bearers of an absolute and transcendent message.
(Pope John Paul II, Address, April 26, 1979)
This is really quite astonishing—God was willing to work through people to tell us his saving truth. He revealed his divine truths via historical acts, using events and people of his choosing.
And he did so using…
Human language and knowledge
God also used human language and knowledge—with all of its limitations—to tell us his eternal truths.
He conveyed things to people through words and actions that made use of the ways of speaking and thinking that were common at the time. God worked this way so it would be possible for humans to write down or pass on these eternal truths.The people who experienced these events and received God’s divine messages either wrote them down later, or would pass them on in a reliable oral tradition that was later written down under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
Of course, sometimes we have to work carefully to get past the imperfections of human language and knowledge in order to see what God wanted to tell us. This is an important step for understanding the Bible!
Unlocking the original meaning
We can easily put these principles to practical use when reading Scripture.
First, learn to understand exactly what the inspired authors meant when they wrote their words. A good Catholic commentary will help explain any relevant language, concepts and cultural references. (I recommend the Navarre Bible commentary, which is outstanding in its explanations and its desire to help you see how the Church understands even the smallest details of the Bible.)
That’s an essential first step—if you don’t understand what the sacred author was saying to people in his own cultural context, in terms as they were used at the time, you won’t be able to clearly see what God is saying through him.
But don’t worry! It’s really not hard to get this right for many passages. And once again, a good commentary will do the heavy lifting for you.
And once you understand the sacred author’s actual message…
Embrace the Word of God
The whole point of reading and understanding the Bible is to encounter God, understand the revelation he has given us, and grow in faith.
So now that you’ve read a passage of Scripture and understand what the author is saying…
…take that next step—listen to God!
Scripture is a living thing, meant for people in all times & places. God speaks through it now just as much as he did when it was written.To help our faith grow as we read Scripture, the Church gives us three important points for interpreting and understanding the Bible:1 “Be especially attentive ‘to the content and unity of the whole Scripture’” (Catechism, 112).
It all fits together, so don’t just look at parts in isolation.1 Read the Bible within “the living Tradition of the whole Church” (Catechism, 113), since the Holy Spirit guides the Church in interpreting Scripture.
Especially helpful is seeing how the Saints, Popes, and Church councils have commented on Scripture.1 Pay attention to “the coherence of the truths of faith among themselves and within the whole plan of Revelation” (Catechism, 114).
point #1, above, the entire deposit of faith forms a wonderful unity—doctrine sheds light on Scripture, and Scripture on doctrine.
Let the Bible enkindle your faith
Some people feel intimidated when they start to read Scripture.
But not you!
Now you have a solid foundation for understanding the Bible. The basic principles contained in this article will help you overcome many uncertainties people have with Scripture.
So start reading!
Ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ.
You can read our main article about Catholic Bible study, or check our home page for more articles about the Catholic faith!
Embracing the Way: Part 2: The Way of the Cross
The Stations of the Cross are an ancient devotion originating in the desire of Christians to go on pilgrimage to Jerusalem. From the earliest decades the Church in Jerusalem revered the burial grounds and other shrines related to the Way of the Cross.
Their devotions were not processions related to the Stations of the Cross as practiced today but did involve a walking pilgrimage to the sacred places related to the crucifixion of Jesus.
When we pray the Way of the Cross we follow 14 stations, in the form of 14 pictures, sculptures, or engravings to allow Christians to pause and enter reflectively into those last moments of Jesus’s journey of love.
The Way of the Cross, as it is practiced today, is a devotion that was introduced in late Middle Ages. It is the devotion to the Passion of Christ promoted by St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1019–1153), St. Francis of Assisi (1181–1226) and St. Bonaventure (1221–1274).
Added to these devotions is the interest and enthusiasm aroused by the Crusades beginning in 1095 which led to the Holy Land becoming the “go to” destination for Christian pilgrims.
After 1233 the Franciscans were appointed as custodians of the sacred sites in Jerusalem—a ministry which continues to the present day.
The Stations of the Cross brought together three local devotions begun in Germany and the Netherlands from the fifteenth century onwards. The first was the devotion of Jesus falling beneath the Cross, as many as seven times as practiced by some local communities.
The second was the procession between local parish churches in memory of Jesus’ path of sorrow. One path commemorating his walk from the Garden of Gethsemane to the house of the former high priest Annas (John 18:13).
Then the walk from the house of Annas to his son-in-law and current high priest, Caiaphas (John 18:24), then to the Praetorian of Pontus Pilate (John 18:28), next to the palace of King Herod (Luke 23:7).
The third devotion follows Jesus’ final walk to the hill of Calvary. There are number of stops along the way.
Jesus is forced to stop by his executioners, he falls in fatigue, and he stops to speak to the men and women mourning his suffering.
In the local processions these stops are at marked columns or crosses on the path where the faithful stop to meditate in the meaning of Jesus’ final journey for their lives.There were a number of stations in those years that are not present in the Way of the Cross today. They included Jesus taking leave of his mother Mary, the Washing of the Feet, and the Agony in Garden.
These local devotions were assimilated into the present form of the Way of the Cross, which was created by Franciscan communities in Spain in the last half of the seventeenth century.
They spread through Spain and Italy, especially through the work of St Leonard of Port Maurice (1676–1751) who erected Stations of the Cross at more than 572 locations.
Most importantly for the whole Church were the Stations he erected in the Roman Colosseum at the request of Pope Benedict XIV in 1750.
Praying the Stations of the Cross
Reflecting on the Stations of the Cross is an exercise in imaginative prayer. They call us to think of more than how Jesus sacrificed himself for our sins: In praying the stations we imagine ourselves walking with Jesus on this journey. We then link our reflection to whatever is going on in our lives today.
On our journey we experience both joy, days of stress, and possibly terrible suffering. As members of families and communities we are witnesses to the joys and sufferings of others.
Thinking of Jesus on the way to his unjust execution can lead to reflection on his care for the millions throughout the world who lack basic human needs such as clean water, sufficient food, or fundamental human rights.
Here we will reflect on the first and fifth Station of the Cross.
First Station: Jesus Is Condemned to Death
John 18:28–38 tells of this tense confrontation between Jesus, Pilate, and Jesus’ accusers. At one point Pilate asks Jesus “Are you the King of the Jews?” Jesus answered, “Do you ask this on your own, or did others tell you about me?” Basically Jesus is asking Pilate: “Are you bringing me your own questions or questions from someone else?”
As we go through the Stations of the Cross we usually follow a prayer service with reflections and questions. These are meant to give examples of the kinds of questions we can ask for ourselves.
So it is important to place ourselves in the scene and bring our own questions of what this means for our life and journey.
It is only by bringing our own questions can we pray the Stations in an authentic way.
Fifth Station: Simon of Cyrene Helps Jesus Carry the Cross
Simon of Cyrene is an African, coming from Cyrene, which is in Libya. We do not know what he is doing in Jerusalem; he just seems to be wandering in from the fields. We do not even know if he is Jewish. He is basically conscripted by the Romans to help Jesus carry the Cross.
However indifferent Simon is about Jesus when he is pressed into service, it proved to be a life-changing experience for him. In the Gospel of Mark he is identified as “the father of Alexander and Rufus” (Mark 15:21), who were well known in the early Christian community.So Simon came from being someone who lived on the periphery of the community to become a cherished member of the early Church.
How does this relate to our journey? It is easy to be annoyed when asked to volunteer, to be asked to move our private comfort zone and become more involved. Perhaps we can pray to Simon of Cyrene to intercede for us so we may discover ways in which we are being called by Jesus to become more cherished members of our parish community.
The Insights of Pope Francis
Do you want to be Pilate, who did not have the courage to go against the tide to save Jesus’ life, and instead washed his hands? Tell me: are you one of those who wash their hands, who feign ignorance and look the other way? Or are you Simon of Cyrene, who helped Jesus to carry that heavy wood, or Mary and the other women, who were not afraid to accompany Jesus all the way to the end, with love and tenderness? And you, who do you want to be? Pilate? Simon? Mary? Jesus is looking at you now and is asking you: do you want to help me carry the Cross? Brothers and sisters, with all the strength of your youth, how will you respond to him?
Address at the 28th World Youth Day, Rio de Janeiro, 26 July 2013
Scripture quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible: Catholic Edition, copyright © 1989, 1993 National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America.
The Passion of Christ
Christ on the cross ©
The Passion of Christ is the story of Jesus Christ's arrest, trial and suffering. It ends with his execution by crucifixion. The Passion is an episode in a longer story and cannot be properly understood without the story of the Resurrection.
The word Passion comes from the Latin word for suffering.
The crucifixion of Jesus is accepted by many scholars as an actual historical event. It is recorded in the writings of Paul, the Gospels, Josephus, and the Roman historian Tacitus. Scholars differ about the historical accuracy of the details, the context and the meaning of the event.
Most versions of the Passion begin with the events in the Garden of Gethsemane. Some also include the Last Supper, while some writers begin the story as early as Palm Sunday, when Jesus entered Jerusalem to the applause of the crowds.
The Passion is a story about injustice, doubt, fear, pain and, ultimately, degrading death. It tells how God experienced these things in the same way as ordinary human beings.
The most iconic image of the Passion is the crucifix – Christ in his last agony on the cross – found in statues and paintings, in glass, stone and wooden images in churches, and in jewellery.
The Passion appears in many forms of art. It is set to music, used as a drama and is the subject of innumerable paintings.
Spiritually, the Passion is the perfect example of suffering, which is one of the pervasive themes of the Christian religion.
Suffering is not the only theme of the Passion, although some Christians believe that Christ's suffering and the wounds that he suffered play a great part in redeeming humanity from sin.
Another theme is incarnation – the death of Jesus shows humanity that God had become truly human and that he was willing to undergo every human suffering, right up to the final agony of death. Another is obedience – despite initial, and very human, reluctance and fear, Jesus demonstrates his total acquiescence to God's wishes.
But the final theme is victory – the victory of Christ over death – and this is why the Passion story is inseparable from the story of the Resurrection.
The elements of the Passion story are these:
- The Last Supper
- The agony in the Garden of Gethsemane
- The arrest of Jesus after his betrayal by Judas
- The examination and condemnation of Jesus by the Jews
- The trial before Pilate during which Jesus is sentenced to be whipped and crucified
- The crucifixion of Jesus
The Last Supper
Jesus and the disciples share a last meal together either during Passover (Synoptic Gospels) or on the eve of Passover (John's Gospel).
The Last Supper was a Passover meal ©
During the meal Jesus blesses and breaks bread, which he gives to the disciples saying “Take, eat; this is my body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of me”.
After the meal Jesus blesses some wine and gives it to the disciples saying “Drink ye all of this; for this is my blood of the new covenant, which is shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins. Do this, as oft as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of me”.This event is the foundation of the Christian sacrament of the Eucharist, which includes services such as Holy Communion, Mass, The Lord's Supper. Although different Christian denominations have many different ways of celebrating the Eucharist, and understand it in different ways, they all developed from the Last Supper.
During the meal Jesus predicts that he will be betrayed by one of those sharing the meal with him, and that another of the disciples will disown him.
The agony in the Garden
After supper Jesus goes with the disciples to spend the night in prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane.
Jesus asks God if he can escape his fate…”Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but yours be done.”
Despite this prayer he willingly submits to God's will and continues to prepare himself. God sends an angel to give Jesus strength for the ordeal.
Jesus continues to pray and his distress is such that 'his sweat was drops of blood'.
The disciples who Jesus asked to wait with him fell asleep; even his closest friends left him to suffer alone.
Jesus is betrayed by Judas and arrested
Judas betrayed Jesus by kissing him ©
A group of armed men, sent by the Jewish authorities, arrives in the Garden to arrest Jesus.
Judas betrays Jesus by identifying him with a kiss – the signal he had arranged beforehand.
Peter, one of the disciples, takes a sword and cuts off the ear of one of the arresting party. The disciple believes that he is trying to protect Jesus, but by doing so he abandons Jesus' teaching against violence.
Jesus forbids further violence and heals the injured man.
The disciples run away and Jesus is taken away.
Jesus is tried by Jewish officials
Jesus is questioned in front of a group of Jewish religious leaders. The Gospels give different accounts of this, and of who is present.
Caiaphas, the Chief Priest of the Temple wanted to destroy Jesus before he caused a rebellion that would bring down the comfortable world of the Temple and enraging the Roman authorities.
During questioning Jesus says enough for the Romans to see him as a rebel, and the Jews to regard him as a blasphemer.The trial of Jesus before the Jewish authorities is a source of much controversy, and has been used in the past to justify anti-Semitism.
Modern Christians do not blame the Jews for the death of Jesus.
The Jewish authorities had several reasons for being angry with Jesus:
- Jesus had challenged their authority – earlier in the week Jesus had gone to the Temple and protested against the moneychangers, as a symbolic denunciation of all the injustices the Temple stood for.
- Jesus was reinterpreting Jewish Law
- Jesus was breaking the laws concerning the Sabbath
- Jesus claimed to be the Messiah, a claim which the authorities thought blasphemous
- The claim to be Messiah suggested that Jesus was preparing some sort of rebellion – probably against the Roman colonial government. Such a revolt would endanger the relationship between Roman and Jewish authorities. (In those days the Messiah was expected to be a royal figure who would defeat the enemies of God and cleanse or rebuild the temple, and perhaps also bring God's justice to the world.)
Jesus is tried by Pilate
Jesus is tried by Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor, on a charge of treason. The Jewish authorities were not authorised to execute people, so they needed to transfer the case to the Roman authorities.
Pilate is not convinced that Jesus is guilty of a capital crime and suggests that it would be sufficient to flog him.
The crowd objects to this and demands that Jesus be killed. Pilate gives in and sentences Jesus to be flogged first and then executed by crucifixion.
Although the Gospels paint Pilate as a weak man who ignores justice rather than stand against the crowd, other sources say that he was tough and authoritarian, and unly to have been pushed around by anyone.
Purple was a royal colour, so the robe and crown mocked the claim that Jesus was King of the Jews ©
Pilate was eventually ordered back to Rome and tried for the cruel way he treated the people under his government.
There is a Christian tradition that Pilate and his wife eventually converted to Christianity.
Jesus is whipped and then, to mock the claim that he is 'King of the Jews', given a crown of thorns and dressed in a purple robe. Jesus carries his cross to the place of crucifixion, helped by Simon of Cyrene.
The crucifixion takes place at a location called Calvary or Golgotha.
Jesus is stripped and nailed to the Cross. Above his head is placed a sign that says 'King of the Jews'. Two criminals are crucified alongside him.
After some hours the soldiers check that Jesus is dead by stabbing him in the side. Blood and water gush out.
Jesus' body is taken down and buried.
The Passion of Christ has featured in Christian liturgy since the 4th century.It became an institution in the 5th century when Pope Leo the Great laid down that the St Matthew Passion should be part of the mass on Palm Sunday and the Wednesday of Holy Week, and the St John Passion should be part of the Good Friday service.
From the 7th century the service on the Wednesday of Holy Week featured the St Luke Passion, and from the 10th century the Roman Catholic Church used the St Mark Passion on the Tuesday of Holy Week.
From quite early the Passion was chanted in a dramatic way, with the reader representing the different voices in the story: the Evangelist as Narrator, the voice of Christ, and other speaking parts. Very often the words of Christ were chanted while the rest was spoken.
The texts were originally chanted by a single person, but from around the 13th century different voices took the different parts.
The first polyphonic Passion settings date from the 15th century.
As music became more sophisticated various forms of Passion were developed, ranging from straight narratives with music through to oratorios anchored to a greater or lesser extent in the text of scripture.
The St Matthew Passion of J S Bach is probably the best-known of the musical settings of the Passion.
The Passion in drama
'Passion plays' have been staged since the 12th century. The earliest play (so far) is one found at the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy. Two 13th century German passion plays are known, and Passion plays were more popular during that century and the one that followed.
The Passion of Christ was also portrayed in the English 'cycle plays'.
Passion plays often give a detailed portrayal of Christ's physical suffering and many of them include explicit dramatisations of the beating and execution of Christ.
There were at least two reasons for this: since all Passion plays emphasise the humanity of Christ and identify this with his physical experiences, a realistic Crucifixion brought the point home to the audience. Secondly, making the action as realistic as possible demonstrated to the audience that the death of Christ was a real historical event.
The most famous Passion play is the one that has been staged at Oberammergau in Upper Bavaria in Germany since 1634.The villagers of Oberammergau had promised God that if he saved them from a plague epidemic they would commemorate it by staging a dramatic representation of Christ's suffering, death and resurrection every ten years.
The Oberammergau Passion play is particularly notable for involving the participation of the most of the villagers, with over 800 people in the cast.
The Passion in art
The Passion is one of the most common subjects in art. Paintings of the Crucifixion were much in demand for church use.
Detail taken from the Isenheim altarpiece ©
The earliest paintings of the Crucifixion date from the 5th century.
Among the most famous paintings is the Isenheim altarpiece (1515) by Mathias Grunewald. The painting of the Crucifixion is gruelling in both its detailed treatment of the physical anguish of Jesus, and the visual language used.
The Crucifix as a sculpted cross with the figure of Jesus dates from the 10th century (the Gero Cross of Cologne Cathedral).
In many churches a Crucifix stands on the choir screen, in the arch between the nave and the chancel. These are often known as 'roods' and the screen as a 'rood screen'. Rood comes from the Saxon word for a crucifix.
The Passion in plants
In this radio programme, Paul Morrison, a naturalist, explores the symbolism of flowers and plants in the crucifixion story. He goes in search of the plant the soldiers may have used to make Jesus' crown of thorns.