Nurses Prayer — For Nursing Colleagues
The importance of good record-keeping for nurses
Nurses are subject to increasing scrutiny regarding their record-keeping. Legislation such as the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Data Protection Act 1998 has increased the profile of, and access to, health records (Dennemeyer, 2000; Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, 2002), while patients are increasingly willing to complain about their care.
Whether complaints are resolved by health care providers or settled in court, comprehensive records are essential.
It is important, therefore, that nurses keep abreast of legal requirements and best practice in record-keeping. The Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2002a) advises that good note-taking is a vital tool of communication between nurses.
It states that nurses ‘must ensure that the health care record for the patient or client is an accurate account of treatment, care planning and delivery. It should be written with the involvement of the patient or client wherever practicable and completed as soon as possible after an event has occurred.
It should provide clear evidence of the care planned, the decisions made, the care delivered and the information shared’.
It is significant that allegations concerning shortcomings in nurses’ record-keeping were the second most common category of hearing brought before the UKCC in 2000-2001 and were surpassed only by allegations of abuse (NMC, 2002b; UKCC, 2001).
The legal perspective
The cost to the NHS of litigation rose from £2.3bn in 1998 to £4.4bn in 2001 (National Audit Office, 2002). Litigation is already regarded as an occupational hazard for medical staff, and it is estimated that at least one in three other health professionals will be involved in some kind of legal proceedings at some point in their career.
Law courts adopt the attitude that if something is not recorded, it did not happen and, therefore, nurses have a professional and legal duty to keep records. The NMC (2002c) states that documentation should demonstrate:
- A full account of the nurse’s assessment and care planned and provided for the patient;
- Relevant information about the condition of the patient at any point;
- Measures the nurse has taken in response to the patient’s needs;
- Evidence that the nurse has understood and honoured the duty of care, has taken all reasonable steps to care for the patient and that any action or omission has not compromised patient safety;
- A record of any arrangements the nurse has made for the continuing care of a patient or client.
Nurses face new issues and problems each day and regularly make decisions on patient care. Each decision is potentially subject to review with the public’s increasing awareness of their rights and tendency to litigate. Amid the stress of a working day, it is easy to see how record-keeping might be seen as a chore that gets in the way of patient care. However, it is an integral part of care.
Nurses must allocate time for both hands-on care and documentation, as it is the two together that constitute total patient care. If record-keeping is seen as a chore, there is a risk that the documentation will fall short of the standard expected of a professional.
A nurse who has cared for hundreds of patients could not possibly remember details about the care provided to a particular patient several years — or even several weeks — later. However, the circumstances are ly to be fresh in the memory of the patient making the complaint.Good documentation can therefore be a vital means of recollection for nurses faced with litigation. Detailed and substantial evidence is ly to be influential in such circumstances; nurses whose memories of events are poor and who have not documented their actions clearly may find their position compromised.
Having good quality records to refer back to enables the nurse giving evidence to relate as precisely as possible what happened.
Long before a legal case becomes a formal hearing, the nursing notes will have been read and studied and an impression formed regarding the relative professionalism of the author. If records are clearly unprofessional it is easier to extrapolate that the same lack of professionalism would be reflected in attitudes towards patient care.
Any notes or records taken in the course of a nurse’s work are a potential legal document and could be used in court.
If they contain judgemental, vague or unsubstantiated information, it becomes difficult to maintain professional credibility in court. It is the job of a patient’s lawyer to undermine a nurse’s case by casting doubt on that nurse’s credibility.
Lawyers are familiar with court cases and professional hearings — two scenarios that may be extremely intimidating for those who are not.
The implications for colleagues
Nurses should also bear in mind, when compiling records, that their colleagues rely on the information they record when taking over a patient’s care. This can resolve any uncertainty over how much to write in patients’ notes.
The frequency and content of entries is determined both by a nurse’s professional judgement and local standards, but an acid test is: ‘If a nurse were coming to care for a patient for the first time, what would they need to know?’ Colleagues should be able to look at a nurse’s notes and continue caring for the patient in a seamless continuum.
If a named nurse was unable to return to work, then from the patient’s point of view this should make no difference to the care they receive.Nurses are also professionally accountable for ensuring that any duties they delegate to unregistered staff are undertaken to a reasonable standard.
For example, if a nurse delegates record-keeping to students or nursing assistants, she or he must ensure that they are adequately supervised and capable of carrying out the task.
The nurse is accountable for the consequences of those records and such entries must be clearly countersigned.
How to improve record-keeping
By adopting the following habits, nurses should avoid problems related to record-keeping:
- Get into the habit of using factual, consistent, accurate, objective and unambiguous patient information;
- Use your senses to record what you did, such as ‘I heard’, ‘felt’, ‘saw’, and so on;
- Use quotation marks where necessary, such as when you are recording what has been said to you;
- Ensure there is a reasoned rationale (evidence) for any decision recorded, for example, denying access to a visit from children;
- Ensure notes are accurately dated, timed, and signed, with the name printed alongside the entry (initials should be avoided);
- Follow the SMART model (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-based) or similar when planning care;
- Write up notes as soon as possible after an event and, by law, within 24 hours, making clear any subsequent alterations or additions;
- Document any objections you may have to the care that has been given;
- Do not include jargon, meaningless phrases (for example ‘slept well’), irrelevant speculation, and offensive subjective statements;
- Write the notes, where possible, with the involvement and understanding of the patient or carer (NMC, 2002c).
Expressions such as ‘had a good day’ should not feature in isolation. Notes should explain why the patient had a good day — for example, if a relative visited or the patient was lively and interacting with staff and other patients (Dimond, 1999).
There are also misconceptions around the use of subjective words such as ‘appears’. This cannot be used as a factual observation such as ‘appeared unsteady on his feet’ — a patient either is or is not unsteady on his feet.
However, such an expression could be used where the facts would be impossible to establish, for example a confused and inarticulate patient who ‘appeared to be experiencing auditory hallucinations’.
The nurse could not be certain what the patient was experiencing, but would need to elaborate and describe the behaviour that led to this conclusion.
Errors should be corrected by putting a single line through the incorrect statement and signing and dating it. If records are used in evidence, it must be clear what was originally written and why it was changed, therefore correction fluids should not be used.
Sometimes professionals may face conflicting ethical pressures — for example it may be considered ‘kinder’ not to keep informing a patient with dementia that they are in hospital under a section of the Mental Health Act when they repeatedly ask where they are.
Provided that nurses know what they are doing and why, and are prepared to justify it, this should not cause undue legal problems (Andrews, 2002; NMC, 2002c; Department of Health, 1999).Ultimately, professional nurses must be able to justify why they have taken a particular course of action.
The NMC’s position on abbreviations is that they should not be used (NMC, 2002c). However, a number of everyday medical abbreviations are used appropriately and safely, such as BP (blood pressure). To write these in full each time would add considerably to the time taken to complete records.
However, there are dangers in the use of abbreviations. For example ‘PT’ could mean patient, physiotherapist or part time; ‘BD’ could mean twice or brought in dead. Misunderstandings can be avoided by generating an agreed list which is reviewed regularly.
This list should be attached to patients’ records (Andrews, 2002; NMC, 2002c; Dimond, 1999).
Vigilance is required to ensure high standards in record-keeping, whether records are in written or electronic form. The audit of patient documentation is a facet of risk management, and can help to promote quality (NMC, 2002c) as it means standards can be assessed and areas for improvement identified (Dimond, 1999).
Maintaining good quality records has both immediate and long-term benefits for staff. It can directly benefit them, for example in respect of safety, by promoting the early identification and appropriate treatment of potentially violent patient behaviour.
In the long term it protects individuals and teams from accusations of poor record-keeping, and the resulting drop in morale.
It also ensures that the professional and legal standing of nurses are not undermined by absent or incomplete records, if they are called to account at a hearing.
Good record-keeping promotes better communication as well as continuity, consistency, and efficiency, and reinforces professionalism within nursing. For the sake of patients and colleagues — as well as their own protection and peace of mind — every nurse should get into the habit of recording their actions and observations accurately and professionally.
in a Hospital and Nursing Home
Duties of a Registered Nurse in a hospital or nursing home entail many things. Registered Nurses (RNs) are responsible for a wide variety of care provided to patients.
Not only are they responsible for taking care of patients but they must delegate to CNAs and supervise Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs). This article will talk about the wide variety of duties a Registered Nurse (RN) performs.
This will include things you probably already knew but it will also include things you probably did not know………the glamorous and not-so glamorous duties of a RN. So let us begin!
Responsibilities of a Registered Nurse (RN)
1.) Assessments of patients! This includes listening to heart, lungs, and bowel sounds, Assessing pupils, mental status, pulses, skin, last bowel moment, urine color (if patient has foley), wounds, any type of tubes (PEG tubes, NG tubes, Chest tubes…etc) mobility, fall risk.
Assessing the IV site for infiltration or if a new one needs to be started (at my hospital IV sites are only good for 4 days). Also vital signs are important. If your patient is on a bedside cardiac monitor you will need to assess their heart rhythm and rate and oxygen level.
In addition to this you not only need to assess your patient physically but you need to assess the patients lab work and diagnostic testing results and call any critical lab values or abnormal diagnostic results to the doctors.2.) Documentation! This is the fun part of nursing! Documenting may be different depending on where you work. For example, on a Progressive Care Unit (PCU) which is where I work. I have to document every 4 hours on my patients. I usually have about 3-4 patients at a time which is a pretty good ratio.
However, ICU nurses have to document every hour and medical surgical nurses document at the beginning of their shift and by exception which means they document if something note worthy happens. Note this probably varies among hospitals.
My documentation includes the following: updating the care plan for the day, charting my assessment, writing a nursing progress note every 4 hours and as needed, updating the 24 hour hourly flow sheet, daily education sheet, telemetry strips.
3.) Supervising LPNs! Note this may be different on where you live because each state has their own laws. Where I live LPNs can not given any type of IV medications or titrate IV Cardiac, Insulin or Heparin drips.
In addition, they must have a RN co-sign all of their assessments, updates to their care plans, and if a patient must go off the floor for testing with a nurse an RN must accompany the patient.
The cons of having to supervise the LPN is that most RNs already have their own patient load that they are responsible for and if they are having to supervise a LPN who has a lot of IV medications that must be given it can decrease the amount of time that RN has for his/her own patients.
4.) Collecting specimens! This includes any type of urine, stool, sputum, wound, skin, hair, and emesis specimens.
5.) Educating patients and their family members! As a nurse, you are also a teacher! You are with the patient the most during their hospitalization.If you are already a nurse you have probably already noticed that most doctors do not do a great job of educating their patients….noticed I said most (some doctors are great!)….
and it is up to you as the nurse to answer and educate your patient on their new medications, newly ordered tests, diets, activity, wound care…etc. Also educating needs to start on admission and not at discharge.
6.) Giving Medications! Some days I feel this is all I do….give medications. Depending on how sick your patient is….it is really all you do. The biggest medication passes for me during day shift are at 1000, 1200, and 1800.
However, you do have patients who get medications at 0730,1000,1200,1500,1600,1800. When this happens I try to group them together because at my hospital I have an hour before and an hour after to give the medications on time.
7.) Drawing blood and starting IVs! Some hospitals have phlebotomist who draw blood and an IV team who starts IVs but other do not. I think having an IV team takes away the nurse’s skill of starting IVs.
Think about it…..if you need an IV fast and the IV team is not available you will need to start it and if you haven’t been doing it because you rely on the IV team your IV skills are going to be really rusty.
Great video on how to find a vein before drawing blood and starting IV:
8.) Inserting Foley catheters and Nasogastric tubes!
9.) Providing daily wound care!
10.) Making sure your patients are given baths, provided mouth care, and turned every two hours if unable to turn themselves! Yes, you can delegate this to your CNAs but sometimes you are short handed and must provide a bath to your patient.
Some RNs think that giving a patient a bath is not their job but the CNAs.
Sorry but they are wrong! Granted that the RN may be too busy to give a bath due to everything else they have to do but if your patient is in a dire need of a bath the RN must provide one to them.11.) Making phone calls to doctors! The nurse is responsible to report anything abnormal to the doctor. In addition, if a patient is vomiting and does not have a medication ordered to help with this the nurse must call the doctor to get an order for the medication.
12.) Increasing your patients activity level! Once again, nurses are with the patient the most during their hospitalization. Some nurses solely depend on physical therapy to work with patients on increasing their activity level which is a huge mistake. Most Physical Therapists see a lot of patients and can only spend about 30-45 minutes (if that) with patients.
It is your responsibility as the nurse to make sure your patient is getting bed and moving. I have seen patients who came into the hospital able to walk but once it was time for their discharge they were unable to barely move because they became so weak from lying in bed the whole time.
Increasing you patients activity level is so important and is very much overlooked by nurses.
So there you have it! It may not be the whole list of duties a registered nurse (RN) performs but are the basic ones. The duties of a registered nurse (RN) can be different depending on where you work. Most of these duties are the duties of floor nurse in a hospital or nursing home.
If you d this article you may be interested in:
Nursing School Tips, Questions, and Answers
3 Prayers For Doctors and Nurses
Here are three short prayers to pray for doctors and nurses.
Pray for All Men
We are actually command to pray at all times and for all men and women.
Paul writes to Timothy “I desire then that in every place the men should pray, lifting holy hands without anger or quarreling” (1st Tim 2:8) and “pray without ceasing, give thanks in all circumstances; for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus for you” (1st Thess 5:18) “praying at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication.
To that end keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints” (Eph 6:18). Jesus taught the disciples “a parable to the effect that they ought always to pray and not lose heart” (Luke 18:1) through the Parable of the Persistent Widow (Luke 18:1-8).
Taking these verses altogether we can say we are to always pray at all times but in the Spirit; to pray without ceasing or whenever and wherever possible; and to not lose heart, being persistent in prayer. Here are three short prayers that can help you pray for doctors and nurses as well as medical technicians in the hospital, even made more important if you or someone you know and/or love is in the hospital.
The Great Physician
Oh Holy, Mighty, Majesty, my Father, You Who are the Great Physician. If it is Your will, please intervene speedily to help my friend/family member be healed or speed their recovery. The chief goal of my pray is not for my will but to magnify and glorify Your Great Son’s Name, Jesus Christ, because it is through this Great Name that I am praying through.
You are sovereign over all sickness, illness, and disease. These are nothing to You and so if it be Your express will Father, please help them supernaturally to the glory of Your Son’s Name.
Please guide the doctor’s hands, bless the nurses work, and give them steady and skilled hands to do what needs to be done and for the glory of and in the Name of Jesus Christ I pray, amen.
The Blessings of Staff
Righteous God in Heaven, thank You for blessing my friend/family member who is in the hospital with such a good staff and even though it seems we often have to wait, at least here we have better facilities and staff than most of the world does. Please forgive me for so often taking these things for granted.
I ask you to bless the staff, the work of their hands, the people who do so much for so many. I would ask to have these blessings be especially poured out on the doctors and the nurses so that they can perform to the best of their abilities for the benefit of my friend/family member and for others.
So many depend on them and I know I take them for granted so bless them and I thank You for them and in Jesus’ most holy Name, Amen.
The Blessings of the Patient
Great God in heaven, I pray for my friend/family member who is in the hospital with a serious condition.
Give them comfort and strength to endure what they are experiencing right now and to help the family deal with the stresses of being removed from home, their insurance paperwork and acceptance, their employers that they’d be understanding of the missing employee, or anything else that I can’t think of that would help them all endure in this time of crisis for their friend/loved one. Please help the doctors and nurses know exactly what to do in each specific area and to find the proper diagnosis so that they can specifically treat the problem. If this means the laboratory staff, the radiologist, or any of the other staff associated with the care of my friend/family member, I ask for that in the Glorious Name of Jesus Christ, amen.
When I pray for someone in the hospital, whether it’s for surgery or to treat an illness or disease, I ask God to bless the patient of course but also the doctors, nurses, medical technicians, administration, insurance processing and acceptance, cafeteria workers, janitors, and about anyone else I can think of that is involved in this hospital but I don’t forget to pray for their family either because what affects one family member, affects them all.
Article by Jack Wellman
Jack Wellman is Pastor of the Mulvane Brethren Church in Mulvane Kansas. Jack is also the Senior Writer at What Christians Want To Know whose mission is to equip, encourage, and energize Christians and to address questions about the believer’s daily walk with God and the Bible. You can follow Jack on Google Plus or check out his book Teaching Children the Gospel available on Amazon.
How to Support your Nursing Colleagues
When you work as a nurse, you rely heavily on your nursing colleagues to get you through the day. Everybody working together for the good of the patients is a great feeling, and it can turn a bad shift into an empowering example of the muscle of nursing collaboration.
However, with the animosity that can sometimes build up between co-workers, it is important to come up with ways to be supportive and not derisive. Yes, nursing is hard, and yes, you may not have the time to help.
That’s not what supporting means. It means being there for your colleagues when they are overwhelmed to the point of collapse.
Working together means sharing the load, helping someone today because you may be the one who needs help tomorrow.
Gossip is a plague that brings down many nurses that would otherwise have no problems with their profession. No one knows where gossip starts exactly. It is always something that someone heard from someone else about the person in question.
Usually, no one takes the time to determine if the gossip is correct. In fact, no one confronts the gossiper or the one gossiped about to find out what the whole story is.
Unfortunately, gossip is rife on every nursing floor, in every facility, in all countries.Of course, this is not supportive of your nursing colleagues. It undermines the fundamental trust between colleagues and can lead to resentment, taking sides and patient danger. When a nurse won’t help a struggling co-worker, then the patient could definitely feel the effects of that.
To support your colleagues, it is better not to participate in gossip. Don’t listen to it. Don’t pass it on. Admittedly, this is sometimes hard to do because people are curious about others. At the very least, play the skeptic. Ask how the gossiper knows what they are saying is true.
Help Out When You Can
Nursing really is a team sport. Think about it. You need help to pull patients up in bed, ambulate them and tend to them in emergencies. It is impossible for a nurse to work on their own without the support of their colleagues.
Aside from these obvious instances to help, you can help you co-workers out in other ways too. If you see a nurse drowning in too much work and getting overwhelmed, ask how you can help them out. This does not mean that you neglect your own work.
It means stepping up when your work is done and offering a hand.
Many nurses are against helping other their co-workers. They may think that they have already done their work and deserve a break. Some nurses feel that if they help, then their colleagues will always expect help.
A smaller subset of nurses just don’t the struggling nurse and refuse to help. This reluctance to support each other is counterproductive to creating a team environment.
Helping out is the number one way to make a co-worker feel supported and to encourage teamwork between nurses.
Learn to Deal With Difficult People
All sorts of people become nurses, and some of them have personalities that are abrasive. Although they may treat patients well, that personality trait comes out in dealing with others, such as co-workers.
How do you know when you have a difficult person, though? The nurse will often be abusive to other nurses, making snide comments or perpetuating gossip about them. Someone with a difficult personality may be immune to rational conversation.
You may assertively attempt to resolve the problem, but no amount of talking helps to heal the conflict.Learning how to deal with difficult people is a vast topic with many resources. If you feel you have a difficult person on your floor, you may want to reference these books for in-depth strategies for dealing with that person’s particular personality quirks.
Building an effective team in your workplace is beneficial, not only to you and your co-workers, but also to your patients. Take the time to notice the people that are struggling, those who are gossiping and those who are creating conflict.
Offer your help and support to overcome these behaviours. We are all working towards the same end goal, improved patient care, and all of us need help and support in achieving this.[show_more more=“Show References” less=”Hide References” align=”center” color=”#808080″]
- Psychology Today, Ten Keys to Handling Unreasonable and Difficult People
- WebMD, Difficult People
- http://www.nursingworld.org/Mobile/Nursing-Factsheets/lateral-violence-and-bullying-in-nursing.htmlHorizontal Violence in Nursing
- Defusing Horizontal Violence
5 Nursing Theories for Nurse Educators
In modern health care, nursing theories assist nurses by offering a number of different strategies and approaches to providing patients with optimal care.
As today’s nurse educators train the next generation of nurses, they are responsible for equipping future nurses with the key components of the foremost theories, so that these nurses can utilize the methods that best fit their patient care needs.
The following five nursing theories are some of the leading approaches used, offering meaningful insights that accommodate each patient’s individual health care needs and interests.
Leininger’s Culture Care Theory
Believing that culture, together with care, is a powerful construct that is essential to health and prosperity, Madeleine Leininger founded the culture care theory during her long career as a certified nurse, administrator, author, educator, and public figure.
Also referred to as the theory of transcultural nursing, the culture care theory addresses the care needs of patients of diverse cultures in hospitals, clinics, and other community settings.
To help nurses and nurse educators develop realistic, new, and comprehensive care practices that effectively serve the unique cultural demands of the ill, Leininger structured the culture care theory with these four major tenets:
- Though culture care practices are inherently diverse, there are some universal attributes and similarities that recur within the patterns and expressions of care.
- Culture care is strongly influenced by relevant aspects of an individual’s worldview, ethnic history, language, environmental context, and societal structure. These factors critically influence personal patterns that can be used to predict health, prosperity, sickness, and how someone behaves when confronted with difficult care concepts, disability and death.
- An individual’s culture-based ideas of care, medicine, and health factors can greatly influence health outcomes.
- There are three transcultural modes of action available to nursing care professionals:
- culture preservation and/or maintenance
- culture accommodation and/or negotiation
- culture re-patterning and/or restructuring
Humanistic Nursing Theory
This theory focuses on the human aspect of nursing and was developed by doctors Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad during the 1960s their interest in mixing nursing with phenomenological and existential philosophies.
Paterson and Zderad were sure that, through examining their own individual experiences and personally connecting with patients, clinical nurses would be able to devise new theoretical arguments that could potentially become useful guides for other nursing care professionals.
In order to focus on the overall human experience when caring for a patient, a nurse should treat the individual as being more than just a number—the nurse needs to connect with the patient in an interpersonal fashion to develop the best care strategy.
This requires engaging in dialogue with the patient, so that the nurse may blend their personal and emotional perspectives with the patient’s respective viewpoints in order to develop a well-rounded understanding of the medical situation.
Through the following three concepts of humanistic nursing, nurse educators can help nurses learn how to effectively define themselves, their work, and their relationships with their patients and colleagues to ensure that their planned treatment strategies account for the personal and emotional viewpoints of every involved party:
Dialogue – Establishing complete communicative relations in three different forms:
- person to person dialogues
- person to object dialogues
- group dialogues in the form of a community of two or more people
Community – Through community, two or more people are able to discover the innate meaning of their actions by sharing ideas and experiences with one another.
Phenomenological Nursing – Intended to help nurses describe their experiences within the context of humanistic dialogue; phenomenological nursing has five phases:
- preparing to understand experiences and perceptions, without prejudice and judgment, while acknowledging one’s own personal worldview.
- getting to know the other person’s view on their experiences as a nurse or patient.
- reflecting upon previous experiences to analyze, classify, and compare one’s own experiences to that of another nurse or patient.
- synthesizing the information gained through the first three phases, the realities of one’s own worldview.
- using the ideas that have been inferred from each situation now represented as a whole concept or theory that represents a nurse’s understanding of their experiences or their patient’s experiences.
Virginia Henderson, member of the American Nurses Association’s Hall of Fame and recipient of the title of “Foremost Nurse of the 20th Century,” dedicated her nursing career to aiding other nurses in formulating their own theories.
Her most profound view of nursing can be found within the nursing need theory, which focuses on increasing a patient’s personal independence while hospitalized for the purpose of expediting their recovery.
By integrating Henderson’s nursing need theory within their curricula, educators can teach nurses how to create practical therapeutic plans that supplement a patient’s own strengths, allowing the patient to gradually become more independent and eventually regain their ability to care for themselves. The theory is broken down into 14 components that are categorized as physiological, psychological, spiritual, and social needs:
- Physiological needs cover areas relating to sleep, eating, dress and environment.
- Psychological needs highlight communication, emotion, learning and handling fears.
- Spiritual needs relate to faith and worship.
- Social needs cover accomplishment and recreational activities.
Self-Care Nursing Theory
Dorothea Orem was a renowned American nursing theorist and educator who conceived the self-care nursing theory, which teaches nurses to assist patients in improving their ability to perform acts of self-care.
Self-care, for the purpose of this theory, is defined as the practice of activities that individuals perform to maintain their personal health and well-being.
To implement the self-care nursing theory effectively in their teachings, nursing educators must apply three interrelated theories:
The Theory of Self-Care – This theory is centered on identifying the universal basic self-care processes that most humans are usually capable of performing.Examples of these universal processes are taking in sufficient air, water, and nutrition, preventing exposure to hazards, and promoting development within social groups.
As humans develop and encounter illness, injury, or disease, this list grows to include situation-specific self-care processes seeking medical attention.
The Self-Care Deficit Theory – This theory focuses on situations where a person has become unable to perform continuous self-care. Orem coined these five methods of assisting patients who are unable to tend to their own self-care needs:
- taking action for the sake of the patient
- providing patients with guidance
- providing patients with support
- providing patients with an environment that promotes personal development
- teaching patients how to cope with obstacles they may potentially face in the future
The Theory of Nursing Systems – Within this theory, three systems are used to identify a person’s need for nursing care:
- Wholly Compensatory Nursing Systems – These systems support people who are entirely unable to care for themselves, and therefore, their well-being is entirely dependent on others.
- Partial Compensatory Nursing Systems – In this system, the nurse and patient each play some role in performing personal care.
- Supportive-Educative Nursing Systems – The patient is able to perform the necessary self-care activities, but needs active guidance from a nursing care professional.
Theory of Interpersonal Relations
Developed in 1952 by Hildegard Peplau, the interpersonal relations theory highlights the significance of a nurse and patient forming a productive partnership.
Nurses become more effective at providing therapy to their patients and nursing them back to good health by building a relationship mutual respect for one another.
Nursing educators can comprehensively teach their students this useful theory by relaying the following four phases:
- Orientation – In the first phase, the nurse helps the patient become engaged with the treatment process by providing them with information and answering any questions.
- Identification – This phase is entered once a patient begins expressing their feelings to the nurse, effectively decreasing the patient’s feelings of helplessness.
- Exploitation – At this point, the patient allows themselves to become more dependent, fully utilizing the services being offered by their nurse or other health care representatives.
- Resolution – During the final phase, the nurse and patient work to dissolve any professional and therapeutic relationships that have formed, as the patient’s need for nursing care has ended. This step is a critical aspect for a patient to maintain a healthy emotional balance.
As new nursing theories are developed and old theories are expanded, nurse educators gain more cognitive tools that are essential for helping nurses and nursing students ensure quality patient care.
Through a Master’s of Science in Nursing program, nurse educators can advance their understanding of such theories, as well as develop the skills needed to become leaders within the nursing field.
Norwich University has been a leader in innovative education since 1819. Through its online programs, Norwich delivers relevant and applicable curricula that allow its students to make a positive impact on their places of work and their communities.
Norwich University’s online Master of Science in Nursing program helps students hone their knowledge and skills to assume leadership positions in healthcare systems, nursing informatics or nursing education.
The program aims to develop students who could take a role in shaping health policy, in educating other nurses and health care professionals, and in providing advanced care to their patients.
Norwich’s online nursing program coursework has been developed guidelines by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and the program is accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education.
The Dynamic Growth of the Nursing Profession
Leading Nurse Team Through Change
How Nurse Leaders Combat Burnout
Overview of Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, Dr. Madeleine Leininger
Phases of humanistic theory: analysis of applicability in research, Text Context Nursing
Virginia Henderson’s Nursing Need Theory, Nurseslabs
Integrating Nursing Theory and Process into Practice; Virginia’s Henderson Need Theory, International Journal of Caring Sciences
Dorothea E. Orem, Nurseslabs
Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Theory, Nurseslabs
Hildegard Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations Theory, Nurseslabs