For My Brother Caught Up In Alcohol

Past Simple и Present Perfect: упражнения с ответами

For My Brother Caught Up In Alcohol

Сегодня будем решать задачки, касающиеся употребления Present Perfect и Past Simple. Рекомендую сразу вспомнить случаи употребления Present Perfect и правила Past Simple. Основные отличительные моменты привожу в следующей табличке:

Имейте ввиду: выполняя упражнения и решая, какое время использовать — Present Perfect или Past Simple, Вы должны обращать внимания на все вышеуказанные обстоятельства, ибо одного из них может быть недостаточно для верного определения времени. Надеюсь, вам понятны различия между Past Simple и Present Perfect.

Итак, собственно, упражнения.

Past Simple or Present Perfect. Exercises

Упражнение 1. Complete the pairs of sentences. Use the Present Perfect in one sentence and the Past Simple in the other.

  1. I (know)  _______ her for six years.

I (know) _______  him when I was at school.

  1. He (live) _______  in Paris from 1997 to 2000.

He (live) _______  in New York since 2001.

  1. Where's Pete? I (not see) _______  him for ages.

I (not see) _______  Pete last night.

  1. We (be) _______  at primary school from 1993 to 1998.

We (be) _______ in this class since September.

  1. I (not watch) _______  this video yet.

I (not watch) _______ a video at the weekend.

Упражнение 2. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Simple or in the Present Perfect.

1.  I ________ (never/ be) to the USA. I ______ (want) to go there last summer but I couldn’t.

2.  He _______ (live) in this street all his life.

3.  His father ________ (come back) to London last Sunday.

4.  Yan __________ (write) a letter to Nick two days ago.

5.  He ________ (send) his letter yesterday.

6.  They  ________  (just/ buy) some postcards.

Упражнение 3. Fill in last night, ever, ago, just, yet, always in the right place.

1.  Nick’s uncle went to Russia 3 years.

2.  Mr. Rambler has come back from Belarus.

3.  Nick has wanted to visit Belarus.

4.  Mr. Rambler saw Yan.

5.  They haven’t visited this old castle.

6. Have you been to England?

Упражнение 4. Choose the correct option.

  1. She has /‘s had a moped since she was 15.
  2. We took /‘ve taken a taxi to town that morning.
  3. We played /'ve played volleyball last night
  4. I'm really hungry. I didn’t eat / haven’t eaten since last night.
  5. They visited/ ‘ve visited Colorado last summer.

Упражнение 5. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Simple or in the Present Perfect.

1. Maria (get) ______ some bad news last week. She (be) ______ sad since she (get) ______  the bad news.

2. I  (start) ______  school when I was five years old. I (be) ______  at school since I (be) ______  five years old.

3. I  (change) ______ my job three times this year.

4. I  (change) ______  my job three times last year.

5.  The weather was hot and dry for many weeks. But two days ago it (rain) ______.

6.  Tom (break) ______  his leg five days ago. He’s in hospital. He (be) ______  in hospital since he (break) ______  his leg.

7.  Are you going to finish your work before you go to bed? — I (finish) ______  it (already). I (finish) ______  my work two hours ago.

Упражнение 6.  Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Simple or in the Present Perfect.

1. I (have, just) ______   a nice pot of coffee. Would you a cup?

2. I (see, not) ______   Steve this morning yet.

3.  Carol and I are old friends. I (know) ______   her since I (be) ______   a freshman in high school.

4.  Maria (have) ______   a lot of problems since she (come) ______   to this country.

5. I  (go) ______  to Paris in 2003 and 2006.

6.  A car came round the corner and I (jump) ______    the way.

7.  Don’t throw the paper away because I (not to read) ______   it yet.

8.  Is Jim going to eat lunch with us today? — No. He (eat) ______   (already).He (eat) ______   lunch an hour ago.

9.  Since we (start) ______   doing this exercise, we (complete) ______  some sentences.

10. I (be) ______   never to Italy.

Упражнение 7. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Simple or in the Present Perfect.

1.  You (ever work) ______ in a shop?

2. I (work) ______ at my uncle’s shop when I was younger.

3.  It’s the first time I (be) ______ on a ship.

4.  Ann is looking for her key. She can’t find it. She (lose) ______ her key.

5.  How many symphonies Beethoven (compose) ______?

6.  Look! Somebody (spill) ______ ink on the notebook.

7.  You (have) ______ a holiday this year yet?

8.  You (see) ______ any good films recently?

9. He (have, not) ______ any problems since he (come ) ______ here.

Упражнение 8. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Present Perfect

1. I  (cut) ______ some flowers from my garden yesterday. I (cut) ______  lots of flowers from my garden so far this summer.

2. I  (not / see) ______  Tom lately.

3. The artist (draw) ______  a picture of sunset yesterday. She (draw) ______ many pictures of sunsets in her lifetime.

4. I  (feed) ______ birds at the park yesterday. I (feed) ______  birds at the park every day since I (lose) ______  my job.

5. Ann (wake up) ______  late and (miss) _______ her breakfast on Monday.

6. I (forget) ______  to turn off the stove after dinner. I (forget) ______  to turn off the stove a lot of times in my lifetime.

7.  The children (hide) ______ in the basement yesterday. They (hide) ______  in the basement often since they (discover) ______  a secret place there.

8.  The baseball player (hit) ______ the ball the stadium yesterday. He (hit) ______ a lot of homeruns since he (join) ______  our team.

9.  We first (meet) ______ in 2001. So we (know) _______  each other for 8 years.

Упражнение 9. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Simple or in the Present Perfect.

1. She (change) ______  a lot since she left school.

2. I  (see) ______ this film and I don’t want to see it again.

3.  Jazz (originate) ______  in the United States around 1900.

4.  Tom Hanks  (win) ______  an Oscar several times already.

5.  Long ago, they (build) ______  most houses wood.

6.  Scientists still (not/find) ______  a cure for cancer.

7.  Sean (eat, never) ______  Chinese food before.

8.  In my first job, I (be) ______  responsible for marketing.

9.  The last job I (apply) ______ for required applicants to speak some Japanese.

10.  The first modern Olympics  (take) ______  place in Athens more than a hundred years ago.

11. I am writing in connection with the advertisement which (appear) ______  in December.

Упражнение 10. Complete the sentences. Use the Present Perfect or the Past Simple.

My family and I (move) from London to Cardiff last summer, so we (live) in Cardiff for seven months now. I miss my friends in London. My best friend is called Megan. We (meet) at primary school, so I (know) her for nine years. Unfortunately, I (not see) her since last summer.

I go to Greystone Secondary School in Cardiff. I (be) at the school since last September. At first I (not ) it because I (not have) any friends here. But the students in my class are really nice and I'm happy here now.

Упражнение 11. Correct the mistakes in these sentences.

  1. We lived here since 1997.
  2. I've been ill since two days.
  3. How long do you know him?
  4. Susie has seen a good film last night.
  5. We've finished our homework just.
  6. I've already wrote three letters.

Упражнение 12. Complete the sentences. Use the Present Perfect or the Past Simple.

Helen:  That's a nice tennis racket. Is it new?

Andy: No, (I/have) ________ it for about a year, but ( I/not play) _______ with it very much. ( I/buy) ________ it in Florida.

Helen: When ( you/go) ________ to America?

Andy: ( I/go)  ________ there with my family in the spring.

Helen: What was it ?

Andy: Great! (I/stay) ___________ with my penfriend.

Helen: Is your penfriend American?

Andy: Yes. ( I/have) ________ an American penfriend for two years. (he/come) __________   to England last summer.

Helen: (I/not meet)  _______ him.

Andу: No, (you/be) ______ on holiday in Turkey.

Упражнение 13. Choose the correct form of the verb.

  1. We went/ ‘ve been to the seaside last summer.
  2. I finished / ‘ve finished my homework. Can I go out now?
  3. I was /‘ve been ill three months ago.
  4. Have you been / Did you to the shop? I need some stamps.
  5. My hobby is fishing. I’ve caught / caught a lot of fish.
  6. Jenny is in Oxford today, but she was /has been in London yesterday.
  7. I played /'ve played basketball when I was younger, but l don’t play now.
  8. I’ve already seen / already saw 'Shrek'.
  9. Julie has been / was ill since Tuesday.
  10. I didn't see / haven't seen Josh since 1998.
  11. We've stayed / stayed at our grandparents for three days. We arrived home yesterday.
  12. The dog went / has gone to sleep an hour ago.
  13. I had / ‘ve had a cat for two years. Its  name is Willis.
  14. I’ve waited / waited for a bus for twenty minutes. Then I decided to walk.

 Ответы:

Exercise 1.

1 have known / knew, 2 lived / has lived, 3 haven’t seen / didn’t see, 4 were / have been, 5 haven’t watched / didn’t watch

Exercise 2.

1 have never been / wanted, 2 has lived, 3 came back, 4 wrote, 5 sent, 6 have just bought

Exercise 3.

1. Nick’s uncle went to Russia 3 years ago.

2.  Mr. Rambler has just come back from Belarus.

3.  Nick has always wanted to visit Belarus.

4.  Mr. Rambler saw Yan last night.

5.  They haven’t visited this old castle yet.

6. Have you ever been to England.

Exercise 4.

1 ‘s had, 2 took, 3 played, 4 haven’t eaten, visited

Exercise 5.

1 got / has been / got, 2 started, have been / was, 3 have changed, 4 changed, 5 rained, 6 broke / has been / broke, 7 have already finished / finished

Exercise 6.

1 have just had, 2 haven’t seen, 3 have known /was, 4 has had / came, 5 went, 6 jumped, 7 haven’t read, 8  has already eaten / ate, 9 started /have completed, 10 have never been

Exercise 7.

1 have you ever worked, 2 worked, 3 have been, 4 has lost, 5 did Beethoven compose, 6 has spilt, 7 have you had, 8 have you seen, 9 hasn’t had / came

Exercise 8

1 cut / have cut, 2 haven’t seen, 3 drew / has drawn, 4 fed / have fed /lost, 5 woke up / missed, 6 forgot / have forgotten, 7 hid / have hidden / discovered, 8 hit / has hit / joined, 9 met / have known

Exercise 9.

1 has changed, 2 have seen, 3 originated, 4 has won, 5 built, 6 haven't found, 7 has never eaten, 8 was, 9 applied, 10 took, 11 appeared

Exercise 10.

Moved, have lived, met, have known, haven’t seen, have been, didn’t , didn’t have.

Exercise 11.

1 lived -> have lived, 2 since -> for, 3 do you know -> have you known, 4 has seen -> saw, 5 We've finished our homework just. -> We've just finished our homework, 6 wrote -> written

Возможны и другие варианты ответов.

Exercise 12.

Have had, haven’t played, bought, did you go, went, stayed, have had, came, didn’t meet, were

Exercise 13.

1 went, 2 ‘ve finished, 3 was, 4 Have you been, 5 I’ve caught, 6 was, 7 played, 8 I’ve already seen, 9 has been, 10 haven’t seen, 11 stayed, 12 went, 13 ‘ve had, 14 waited

Возможно, Вам также нужны:

  • Упражнения на Past Simple.
  • Упражнения на Present Perfect.

Сохраните на будущее и поделитесь с друзьями!

Источник: http://grammar-tei.com/past-simple-i-present-perfect-uprazhneniya-s-otvetami/

All the bullshit that happened when the university caught me drinking underage

For My Brother Caught Up In Alcohol

First of all, the fact the drinking age in America is unreasonably high is not something I even want to begin to delve into (see: drinking age in literally every other country).

Being the lovely, 19-year-old partygoer I so boisterously am, I have partook in a few more blurry nights than I would to publicly admit. Unfortunately, the University of Wisconsin-Madison has witnessed a few more not-quite-legal sips than I would to admit (two to be exact).

Yep, university authorities have cited me twice for illegally drinking on campus, and that’s pretty shitty. Let me tell you why:

The first time I was written up was fairly deserved

It was the second week of my time here, and there were about seven-too-many people in a tiny dorm room. We were drinking some beers. The music was too loud, the shouting was too much, and the time was about five minutes past quiet hours. We got that heart-sinking knock on the door that meant an RA had heard our shenanigans, and we were all screwed.

I was lucky it was just university housing I had to deal with, if Madison PD showed up knocking we would have been issued citations with a $600 ticket price and permanent marks on our records.

Instead, I got a meeting with the head of our dorm complex and two classes about why drinking is dangerous and destructive and should be avoided at all costs (both of which I showed up to a little buzzed and with a water bottle full of whisky in my handbag).

The second time I was written up, however, was fucking bullocks

I was enjoying the day with my brother at the university terrace on the lake and he bought me a beer. I had a whopping two sips it before a terrace employee walked up and asked to see my ID.

I lied and said I didn’t have one on me and eventually she accepted my birthdate as proof of my age, which I stupidly didn’t have set to lie on my behalf (newsflash uni employees: you set your own damn birthdate).

She told me I wouldn’t be penalized, but I had to leave the premises for the next 24 hours. DEAL.

Then time to register for classes came

When I tried to register I was notified I had been placed on “non-academic probation” for an “undisclosed reason” and could not enroll in any classes for the next semester. Um… excuse me?

I called the office of student conduct to be forwarded through a chain of about six different offices and finally landed in the correct place.

I was notified that apparently a few months prior I was supposed to meet with someone regarding my snafu at the terrace but when none of the emails were properly delivered to me I was just placed on probation and refused the ability to enroll — good to know, UW.

I’m sorry, probation what?!

I scheduled a meeting with the head honcho to once again beg forgiveness for something I didn’t feel remorse for. However, in the meantime, I still wasn’t allowed to register for classes.

Finally, an understanding was reached and my ban was temporary lifted

I could register, but I had to be immediately reinstated thereafter. Mighty kind, seeing as it isn’t university policy to place students on probation for alcohol-related incidents without first meeting with them.

The meeting came, I told her about my hopeful future as a medical professional, I worked up a tear or two, and within about 12 minutes she agreed taking another alcohol education class wouldn’t be worthwhile seeing as I wasn’t necessarily irresponsibly drinking (aka I wasn’t found passed out in a puddle of my own vomit on university property) I was “only illegally drinking,” and I was assigned a 1000 word essay about how drinking — or more importantly: getting caught drinking — could affect my admittance into med-school in the future.

And that essay was damn good. Ya girl can emote remorse with the best of ’em, and I wrote the whole thing with a glass of wine in my hand.

See the thing that’s so bullshit about all of this is that no, writing an essay or going to a class about the evils of alcohol is not going to dissuade me from enjoying a drink

Because quite frankly, in my very humble opinion, there is nothing wrong with it. There is nothing morally or ethically wrong with having a casual, responsible alcoholic beverage with your brother on a hot summer day.

Had I lived literally anywhere else in the world I would have gotten a soft smile from the authorities, and they would have kept walking because I was being respectful, responsible, and not at all belligerent.

The only thing that made my afternoon that day illegal was 600 days and 1,200 miles.

When in America’s beer-land, do as the Wisconsinites!

I get it, it sucks but “it’s a rule and rules are meant to be followed” (and made to be broken), and just because I don’t personally have anything wrong with it doesn’t give me the right to abide by my own rules.

I’m just saying it’s a ridiculous rule that the entire rest of the world has gotten on board against and the fact young adults can have their entire professional lives and educations ruined just because they didn’t hide their party as well as their neighbors did is asinine.

I suppose the lesson to take away from this cautionary tale is to not drink kids — and by that I mean to be really freaking sneaky when you do — because you just might have to lie your pants on fire to save your education from it.

Источник: https://thetab.com/us/wisconsin/2017/04/17/bullshit-things-happened-university-caught-drinking-underage-5716

How Long Does Alcohol Stay in Your System?

For My Brother Caught Up In Alcohol

ARTICLE SUMMARY: Alcohol stays in your system and is usually detected in urine drug tests 12-24 hours. Still, it can sometimes be detected for up to 80 hours after you end a drinking session.

Alcohol can also be tested in saliva for 12 hours after you stop drinking. It can be traced in hair for 48 hours. Blood testing shows how much alcohol is currently present in your blood stream.

We review alcohol metabolism, alcohol detection, and drug testing principles for alcohol below.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Peak Levels And Half Life

In the United States, a standard drink is any drink that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol found in:

  • 12 ounces of regular beer, which is usually about 5% alcohol
  • 5 ounces of wine, which is typically about 12% alcohol
  • 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits, which is about 40% alcohol

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One serving of alcohol is fully absorbed into the blood stream within 30 minutes to 2 hours after intake. This is because the body can metabolize about 0.25 ounces of alcohol per hour.

The amount of alcohol in your blood is known as “blood alcohol concentration” (BAC). The higher your BAC is, the more impaired you become. Generally speaking, alcohol is absorbed into the blood relatively quickly and metabolized more slowly. Usually the effects appear within 10 minutes, but the peak is reached at about an hour after consummation.

In an average 150 pound person, for example, each drink adds 0.02% to BAC and hour that passes removes 0.01% from it. This is why alcohol concentrations build steadily throughout a drinking session. The Cleveland Clinic provides an online BAC calculator here.

However, the effects of alcohol vary by individual and by how much alcohol they drink in one session. In fact, the effects and levels of alcohol in the body depend upon a number of factors:

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  • A person’s size and weight.
  • Individual metabolism rate.
  • Related food intake.
  • The beverage consumed.

Metabolism

Alcohol is absorbed in the body more rapidly than it is metabolized. Because of this, alcohol levels can build up in your system very fast. Less than 10% of the alcohol is removed from the body in breath, sweat, and urine, while about 90% is eliminated by the process of oxidation that occurs in the liver with the action of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH).

How long alcohol lasts in our body is connected with the amount of alcohol you drink. Generally speaking, one unit of alcohol stays in the body for about 2 hours after being taken. One alcohol unit equals one standard drink.

Why Test For Alcohol?

Alcohol impairment within the workplace and while driving can cause:

  • Distortion of reality
  • Drowsiness
  • Impaired judgment
  • Loss of concentration
  • Memory loss
  • Poor coordination
  • Slow reaction time

People who drink alcoholic beverages while at work or while driving put themselves and everyone around them in danger. Local, state and federal laws have been created to protect public safety and require that employers or law enforcement officials urine drug tests  you randomly, before and during employment, or reasonable suspicion.

How long do states keep a DUI on your record? It depends on that state’s laws.

Alcohol Testing Methods

1. Urine based tests.

Alcohol has a relatively short lifespan in the human system. Urine testing can be an accurate and reliable method for detecting the presence of alcohol if performed within the relatively short period following ingestion in which it can be detected. The results of a urine ethanol assay are expressed qualitatively as either “positive” or “negative” and do not measure levels of intoxication.

2. Blood based tests.

Blood testing for alcohol, on the other hand can measure the amount of ethanol in blood (which requires a 4 ml specimen in a fluoride-oxalate container) and is the preferred test in chronic alcoholism or in an acutely intoxicated patient.

3. Breathalyzer tests.

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In addition to urine and blood sample testing, ethyl alcohol is measured by a gas chromatographic procedure which is able to differentiate it from other alcohols, notably methanol and isopropanol. In fact, today most drug screens for alcohol are taken via breathalyzer tests.

Breathalyzer tests are more useful to determine both the presence and the degree of acute alcohol intoxication.

Because breath tests are much simpler, faster and are less invasive than blood tests, they are the most common alcohol testing method used to detect the presence and amount of alcohol consumed.

4. Saliva tests.

Saliva, or oral fluid, tests can best detest a recent use of alcohol, and can be taken on-site. Also known as ‘mouth swab’ or ‘spit’ tests, these tests allows employers and law enforcement to randomly alcohol test you.

5. Hair follicle testing.

These tests can detect substances for a long period of time. Hair samples are taken by extracting a few strands of your hair. Usually, the hair is cut close to the scalp and 4 cm or 1.5 inches from the top are sent for analysis. Each half inch of hair represents 30 days of sampling history.

Detection Windows

The detection time for alcohol depends upon the maximum level of blood alcohol content (BAC) achieved and varies by individual. People who achieve a moderate level of intoxication (0.10% BAC) are detectable about 8 hours after achieving that level. Moreover, the alcohol stay depends of the type of the test used.

The approximate detection windows by drug test are as following:

Urine: Alcohol has an approximate detection time of 12-24 hours in urine. In some cases, alcohol can be detected up to 80 hours after your last drink.

Hair: Generally, alcohol can be traced in hair about 48 after your last drink.

Saliva: These tests can show the presence of alcohol up to 12 hours after the drinking session ends.

Blood: It can take up to 2 hours for alcohol to show up in your blood. Then, these tests are used to examine the exact amount of alcohol in your system in the moment.

Find more information on alcohol detection timelines in our infographic here.

Signs of an Alcohol Problem

If you think that you may have problems with alcohol, you probably do.

If you are continually testing positive for the presence of alcohol, or routinely arrested for DUIs…it may be time to ask for help. If you show up to work hungover or can’t stop at one drink…it may be time to ask for help. If you don’t know how or why you started drinking in the first place…you can benefit from help!

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) lists the signs of a drinking problem as follows:

  • A chronic need or craving for alcohol.
  • Drinking interferes with health, home, or work responsibilities.
  • Drinking more or longer than you intended.
  • Feeling palpitations after drinking.
  • Irritability, nervousness, or tremors when you can’t drink.
  • The inability to stop or cut down on drinking.

But you don’t need to wait until these clear signs manifest.

Anytime you reach for a drink, despite negative effects in your life…you can benefit from help.

Help for alcohol problems is available. Once you go through medically supervised alcohol detox to get alcohol your body, you will learn ways to cope with life without drinking.  Yes.  Recovery from alcoholism is difficult.  But it’s possible.

Alcohol, Alcoholism, And Addiction

Alcohol is one of the mostly widely used beverages across the world. This socially acceptable substance makes you feel relaxed and happy at first. But, the chronic use of alcohol over time can cause physical and mental dependence on alcohol in order to function. And as a nervous system depressant, alcohol can cause brain activity impairment resulting in:

  • Difficulties in walking
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Memory lapses
  • Slurred speech

About 10% of drinkers can develop psychological and physical dependency on alcohol. According to the 2016 National Survey on Drug Abuse and Health, 15.1 million people aged 12+ had alcohol use disorder in the past year.

1 in 18 Americans had drinking problems in 2016

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that every year between 2006-2010…88,000 people died from alcohol-related causes. In fact, alcohol is the third leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. So what are we doing about it? So, consuming alcohol is neither a joke, nor fun…

The NSDUH reports that about 21 million people needed rehab for alcohol and/or drug use in 2016. But the need for treatment is not currently being met. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism reports that only 1.5 million Americans either enter treatment for alcoholism or are admitted to a general hospital with medical conditions due to alcohol dependence annually.

Your Questions

Please leave your questions about drinking alcohol and alcohol detection below. Or, if you think you may have a drinking problem, please let us know anonymously. We are here to help refer you to local resources and services.

Reference sources: SAMHSA/CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols: Chapter 9, Drug Testing as a Tool
U.S. Department of the Interior Signs and Symptoms Fact Sheet on Drugs and Alcohol
U.S. Department of Transportation publication: Safety issues on drugs and alcohol
U.S. National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) publication Drug testing in a drug court environment: common issues to address

Источник: https://drug.addictionblog.org/?p=5985

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