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Курс: Listening and Reading Russian State Exam: Unit1
Раздел 1. Аудирование
Прослушайте шесть высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A–F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1–7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.
1) This ingredient of a sweet treat has a long history. 2) Special sweets can be decorations for special occasions. 3) Candy from our childhood has a very special taste.
4) Every candy cane has its own sweet secret. 5) I didn’t regret spending money for those sweets. 6) It was impossible to eat alone all the sweets needed.
7) This shop has an unusual mix of goods.
Задание B1. Аудирование
A10 When Nigel decided to get a pilot’s license, he had to …
1) leave school to work.
2) change many jobs.
3) combine work and studies.
A11 Nigel explains that “to get instrument rating” means to demonstrate the ability
1) operate any type of aircraft.
2) fly in any weather conditions.
3) use different equipment on the ground.
A12 Nigel can’t get a job with a major airline because …
1) he doesn’t have enough experience.
2) these airlines have stopped hiring new pilots.
3) his pilot’s license is not valid.
A13 In order to achieve his aim, Nigel still needs to … …
1) pass a medical test.
2) gain more flying skills.
3) choose a suitable airline.
A14 Before he gets enough experience, Nigel is ready to work …
1) for a low salary.
2) with many different people.
3) in faraway places
1. Apples are a crisp, white-fleshed fruit with a red, yellow or green skin with a
moderately sweet refreshing flavour. The apple is actually a member of the
rose family, which may seem strange until we remember that roses make
rose hips, which are fruits similar to the apple. Over the centuries the apple
tree has spread to most temperature regions of the world and many hybrids
have been developed.
2. You can find thousands of varieties of apples in the market today. Golden
and Red Delicious apples are mild and sweet, Gravenstein, Pippin and
Granny Smith apples are notably brisk and tart. Tart apples are often used
for cooked desserts apple pie, while Delicious apples and other sweet
varieties Braeburn and Fuji apples are usually eaten raw.
3. Apples have long been associated with the biblical story of Adam and Eve,
although there is actually no mention that, in fact, the fruit in question was
definitely an apple. In Norse mythology, apples were given a more positive
image; a magic apple was said to keep people young forever. We can also
read about such apples in Russian folk tales.
4. There as an interesting episode connected with apples in the history of the
US. It is about Johnny Appleseed. Despite the mythologycal quality of his
tale, he was a real person named John Chapman. In the 1800s he walked
barefoot across an area of 100,000 square miles, planting apple trees that
provided food and a livelihood for generations of settlers.
5. The Bramley apple is often called the King of British apples. Dessert apples,
or “eating apples”, have high sugar content, giving them the sweet flavour
that makes them delicious to eat, but also makes them lose their flavour
when cooked. Bramley apples, however, are unique because they have lower
sugar levels and their flavour doesn’t disappear when cooked in popular
6. Apples are such commonly-eaten fruits that it’s easy to overlook their
amazing and unique health benefits. Apples combine certain nutrients in a
way that sets them apart from all other fruits. They are a good source of
dietary fiber and vitamin C, as well as flavonoids and antioxidant nutrients.
Apples help lower the risk of heart disease and cancer.
7. Rinse apples under clear running water you would any fruit. If organic,
don’t peel unless the recipe you have chosen requires peeled apples. To
prevent browning when cutting apples for a recipe, simply put the pieces in a
bowl of cold water to which a spoonful of lemon juice has been added. For
use in future recipes, apples freeze well in plastic bags or containers.
The national Lottery, a government sponsored and approved form of
gambling, appeared in Britain in 1994. The first draw took place on 19
November and then draws have taken place each week. Since it started, over £6
billion has been spent by punters – people 1 _______________________. This
means that the National Lottery has become the most popular form of gambling.
The prize money is considerable, so punters can daydream about
2 _______________________. All lottery publicity, including the TV
commercials, has encouraged this fantasy. Another reason for its popularity is
the ease with 3 _______________________. There are National Lottery outlets
all over the country: in supermarkets, petrol stations, newsagents. It couldn’t be
easier! The actual process of buying a stake in the draw is also very simple.
Punters blank out any six numbers between 1 and 49 on a slip of paper, and
together with their £1.00 stake, hand it over to a shop assistant,
4 _______________________, which in turn prints out a ticket with the
nominated numbers. These numbers are transmitted to a central computer. A
whole sub-culture has developed around selecting numbers. One winner used
the numbers on houses 5 _______________________. Most people use various
combinations of “lucky” or significant numbers. The draw itself is a media
event each Saturday night, 6 _______________________, such as Tina Turner
or Liza Minelli.
A. who dreams of guessing a winning combination
B. which tickets may be bought
C. which he passed on his way to work
D. which is usually presided by a celebrity or pop star
E. who gamble on having a lottery win
F. who then feeds the slip into machine
G. how they will spend their new-found wealth
Success is rarely achieved without a little luck, and in Camilla's case thiscame in the form of a phone call from a journalist friend in New York. All ofthe media in Manhattan, it seemed, was talking about the Garabedian brothersand their unexpected move into publishing. Having made several fortunes innursing homes and waste disposal, they had recently acquired a group ofcompanies that included a minor book publisher, a newspaper, and severalmagazines in varying stages of decrepitude or collapse. The assumption was thatthe Garabedians had taken over the group for its main asset, which was abuilding on Madison Avenue, but there were rumours that one or two of themagazines might be kept alive and, in the words of Garabedian the younger,”goosed.” Financial analysts interpreted this as an indication of significantinjections of their capital. And one of the magazines considered suitable forgoosing was Decorating Quarterly.It was the kind of publication you might expect to find, its pages curledand yellowing, in the salon of a long-deserted Newport mansion.The advertisements, few and far between, were mostly devoted to curtainfabrics and lighting fixtures. Articles discussed the proper care of eighteenth centuryporcelain. The magazine kept its editorial face firmly turned away fromanything remotely contemporary.Garabedian the elder looked at the numbers and was all for killing themagazine. But his brother was married to a young woman who described herselfas a homemaker. She persuaded her husband to consider a rescue operation, andthe demise of Decorating Quarterly was postponed. The word went out:Camilla came over to New York with a detailed proposal and was hired.As her first editorial act, she announced a change in the magazine's name:henceforth, Decorating Quarterly would be known as DQ. New York watchedand waited. In the way of new editors making their mark, Camilla promptlyinvested a considerable amount of Garabedian's money in consolidating herposition. She was seen—appropriately and expensively dressed, of course—atall the right occasions, beaming at all the right people. Well before her firstissue of DQ appeared, she had managed to establish a certain level of celebritystatus nothing more substantial than social stamina.Camilla paid particularly close attention to the decorators, knowing thattheir influence over clients often extended far beyond advice about fabrics andfurniture. And so, on those rare occasions when one of the magazine's chosenvictims showed any reluctance to have their home invaded by photographers,Camilla called the decorator. The decorator twisted his client's arm. The doorswere opened. In this way, Camilla managed to go where no other glossymagazine had gone before. In fact, her very first issue contained a scoop, a doubletriumph- the Park Avenue triplex (an Impressionist in every bathroom)and the Mustique cottage (three servants per guest) belonging to RichardClement of the Wall Street Clements. A normally private bachelor, living asecluded life, he had surrendered to his Italian decorator and Camilla. Theresulting article, twenty pages of honeyed description and superb photography,had been widely noticed and much admired.
A15 A journalist friend phoned Camilla to1) wish her good luck in her career.2) invite her to come over to him in New York.3) tell her about the latest events in the media.4) find out what Camilla was working on.
A16 People thought that the Garabedian brothers had moved into publishing because
they1) knew it was very profitable.2) were interested in the real estate coming with it.3) wanted to establish their own publishing house.4) were seeking for positive publicity.
A17 Saying that a couple of magazines might be “goosed” Garabedian the younger
implied that1) several magazines might be merged into one.2) they would leave some magazines as they used to be.3) they were prepared to invest in some magazines.4) they were looking for sponsors for some magazines.
A18 The Garabedian brothers selected Decorating Quarterly because
1) it was the embodiment of good taste.2) it had a long and glorious history.3) numerous advertisements were placed there.4) a family member found it interesting.
A19 Camilla became a sort of celebrity because she had
1) successfully changed the name of a magazine.2) wasted a lot of Garabedian’s money.3) promoted herself energetically.4) been quick to publish the first issue of a new magazine.
A20 Camilla paid particularly close attention to decorators because they
1) represented the main body of the readers of DQ.2) were an effective means to achieve her goals.3) contributed articles on fabrics and furniture.4) beautified the homes of her prospective sponsors.
A21 The first issue of DQ was a double triumph because
1) it featured both the city and country residences of a rich but solitary man.2) both articles and photographs were of exceptionally good quality.3) it featured both the owner of the place and his Italian decorator.4) it was admired both by the professional community and the public at large.
Website Development Process: Full Guide in 7 Steps
Despite conventional wisdom, the core part of website development and design is not necessary for the coding process.
But what usually stay behind the scenes and, at the same time, remain the crucial part of website development life cycle are the stages of preliminary information gathering, detailed planning, and post-launch maintenance.
In this article, we’ll take a look at how the general website development process may look .
The overall number of development stages usually varies from five to eight, but every time the whole picture stays pretty much the same. Let’s choose the average value.
So, here are seven main steps: 1) Information Gathering, 2) Planning, 3)Design, 4) Content Writing and Assembly, 5) Coding, 6) Testing, Review and Launch, 7) Maintenance.
Website Development Timeline
When you think of building a website, your thoughts rotate around two main issues – price and time. These two values depend largely on the size and scope of the project.
To outline the whole development process, you can create a website development timeline, adding tasks, and establishing milestones for your project.
It is the best way to track your project implementation to make sure you keep up with the deadline.For this purpose, we prefer to use GanttPRO – a convenient, intuitive Gantt chart for online project planning. See the screenshot below:
We’ve prepared a detailed description of the whole website development process, estimated time for each step and a checklist to double check you don’t miss anything.
Step 1. Gathering Information: Purpose, Main Goals, and Target Audience
This stage, the stage of discovering and researching, determines how the subsequent steps will look .
The most important task at this point is to get a clear understanding of your future website purposes, the main goals you wish to get, and the target audience you want to attract to your site.
Such kind of a website development questionnaire helps to develop the best strategy for further project management.
News portal differs from the entertainment websites, and online resources for teenagers looks different than sites for adults.
Different types of websites provide visitors with different functionality, which means that different technologies should be used according to purposes.
A well described and detailed plan this pre-development data can protect you from spending extra resources on solving the unexpected issues such as design changing or adding the functionality that wasn’t initially planned.
Estimated time: from 1 to 2 weeks
Step 2. Planning: Sitemap and Wireframe Creation
At this stage of the website development cycle, the developer creates the data that allow a customer to judge how the entire site will look .
the information that was gathered together in the previous phase, the sitemap is created. Here is the sitemap of the XB Software website:
The sitemap should describe the relations between the main areas of your website. Such representation could help understand how usable the final product will be.It can show you the “relationship” between the different pages of a website, so you can judge how easy it will be for the end-user to find the required information or service if he starts from the main page.
The main reason behind the sitemap creation is to build a user-friendly and easy to navigate website.
The sitemap allows you to understand how the inner structure of a website looks but doesn’t describe the user interface. Sometimes, before you start to code or even work on a design, there’s a necessity to get approval from a customer that everything looks fine so you can begin the next phase of developing.
In this case, a wireframe or mock-up is created. A wireframe is a visual representation of the user interface that you’re going to create. But it doesn’t contain any design elements such as colors, logos, etc. It only describes the elements that will be added to the page and their location.
It’s artless and cheap in production sketch.
You can use any mockup for this purpose. We used Moqups. Here’s how the wireframe can look :
The other important thing is select technology stack – programming language, frameworks, CMS that you’re going to use.
Estimated time: from 2 to 6 weeks
During the design phase, your website takes shape. All the visual content, such as images, photos, and videos is created at this step. Once again, all the info that was gathered through the first phase is crucial. The customer and target audience must be kept in mind while you work on a design.
The website layout is the result of a designer’s work. It can be a graphic sketch or an actual graphic design. The primary function of the layout is to represent the information structure, visualize the content, and demonstrate the basic functionality. Layouts contain colors, logos, images and can give a general understanding of the future product.
After that, the customer can review the layout and send you his feedback. If the client is not sure about some aspects of your design, you should change the layout and send it back to him. This cycle should be repeated until the customer is completely satisfied.
Estimated time: from 4 to 12 weeks
Step 4. Content Writing and Assembly
Content writing and compiling usually overlaps with other stages of website creation, and its role can’t be underestimated. At this step, it is necessary to put in writing the very essence you’d to communicate to the audience of your website and add calls-to-action.
Content writing also involves the creation of catching headlines, text editing, writing new text, compiling the existing text, etc., which takes time and effort. As a rule, the client undertakes to provide website content ready to migrate to the site.
It is better when all website content is provided before or during website coding.
Estimated time: from 5 to 15 weeks
Step 5. Coding
At this step, you can finally start creating the website itself. Graphic elements that have been designed during the previous stages should be used to create an actual website.
Usually, the home page is created first, and then all sub-pages are added, according to the website hierarchy that was previously created in the form of a sitemap.
Frameworks and CMS should be implemented to make sure that the server can handle the installation and set-up smoothly.All static web page elements that were designed during the mock-up and layout creation should be created and tested. Then, special features and interactivity should be added. A deep understanding of every website development technology that you’re going to use is crucial at this phase.
When you use CMS for site creation, you can also install CMS plugins at this step if there’s a need. The other important step is SEO (Search Engine Optimization). SEO is the optimization of website elements ( e.g., title, description, keyword) that can help your site achieve higher rankings in the search engines. And, once again, valid code is pretty important for SEO.
Estimated time: from 6 to 15 weeks
Testing is probably the most routine part of a process. Every single link should be tested to make sure that there are no broken ones among them.
You should check every form, every script, run a spell-checking software to find possible typos. Use code validators to check if your code follows the current web standards.
Valid code is necessary, for example, if cross-browser compatibility is crucial for you.
After you check and re-check your website, it’s time to upload it to a server. An FTP (File Transfer Protocol) software is used for that purpose. After you deployed the files, you should run yet another, final test to be sure that all your files have been installed correctly.
Estimated time: from 2 to 4 weeks
What’s important to remember is that a website is more of a service than a product. It’s not enough to “deliver” a website to a user. You should also make sure that everything works fine, and everybody is satisfied and always be prepared to make changes in another case.
Feedback system added to the site will allow you to detect possible problems the end-users face. The highest priority task, in this case, is to fix the problem as fast as you can. If you won’t, you may find one day that your users prefer to use another website rather than put up with the inconvenience.The other important thing is keeping your website up to date. If you use a CMS, regular updates will prevent you from bugs and decrease security risks.
Estimated time: ongoing
Bonus: Website Development Checklist
To make sure you don’t miss anything and do work on time, grab this checklist:
You should always keep in mind that the website development project doesn’t start with coding and doesn’t end after the day you finally launch your website.
The phase of preparation affects all subsequent stages, defining how productive the development process will be. A profound and in-depth discovery of such aspects age, sex, and interests of your end-user may become the key to success.
The post-launch period is rather significant. Your project should be agile and flexible enough to have a possibility to change your website according to users’ feedback or spirit of the time.
Keeping in mind that there’s no such thing as insignificant website development phase will prevent you from unexpected troubles and give you confidence that everything flows as it should, and you have full control over the project.
Hopefully, this article provided you with valuable information, and you can develop your website with ease.
Whole vs. Processed Foods
The term ‘food’ has changed dramatically in the last 100 years! Since the dawn of time people have survived eating what we call today organic, whole foods. Sadly, organic whole foods are considered a luxury and almost a specialty item in this day and age, indicating just how far away from nature we’ve come.
As food was taken from the hands of the farmers to processing plants, we began a new era of food products, which our ancestors would not recognize.
The hidden ingredients that make food more appealing to our tastebuds are added to a large percentage of all heavily processed foods.
The 3 main ingredients, fat, sugar, and salt, are known to excite our taste buds and make us want more. They perpetuate an addictive cycle many people struggle with. Neuroscientists link overeating to food addiction due to high amounts of refined sugar and fat in diets.
Whole foods on the other hand, with their amino acids, vitamins, minerals, glucose and fatty acids packed with fiber along with many other nutrients, do not perpetuate the same addictive problem.
Whole foods represent foods that retain their natural composition as well as contain no artificial additives or preservatives and have gone through little or no processing (i.e. cooking, grinding, or blending). Whole foods contain vitamins, minerals, water, fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, fiber and much more.
Each whole food, be it a nut or apple, quinoa or banana, contains more nutrients than we are currently familiar with. In other words, we do not yet have a complete list of all the nutrients inside whole foods that are essential to human nutrition.
While we do not yet fully understand how these nutrients interrelate with each other or how they are distributed inside our bodies, however we are beginning to understand that they are codependent in their function. Our bodies have been in tight relationship with whole foods for as long as we have been on this planet. We require the full spectrum nutrition for optimal functioning, which only whole foods can provide.
Processed foods have their natural composition altered in some way. This is a very wide field, which I will touch upon only on the surface. First of all, not all processing is unhealthy, of course. Light processing cooking, freezing, blending, soaking, fermenting or drying can be quite healthy if done using whole foods and avoiding heavily processed ingredients.
Some dried herbs (e.g. basil, chili, cilantro, dill, garlic, ginger, lemongrass, oregano, and parsley) are high in antioxidants and beneficial to our health.
Fermented foods have shown to be highly beneficial for our gut as well as brain health and are being used in nutritional psychiatry.Sprouting grains increases their digestibility, improves amino acid profile, B vitamins and sugar composition.
Foods with heavier processing or added ultraprocessed elements is usually what we have in mind when we speak about processed foods. Heavily processed foods can be extracted from whole foods (e.g.
oils, sugars, MSG, food dyes, extracted proteins, other food stabilizing additives, etc) or artificial sources (e.g. artificial food dyes are a byproducts of burning coal tar).
Most food processing also involves natural or artificial agents (salt, sugar, sodium or potassium benzoate, parabens, etc.) to preserve freshness and prevent spoiling.
While eating whole foods will give you unspoiled fatty acids, extracted lipids can become very unstable and oxidize quickly during processing, which produces dangerous free radicals and degrades proteins and vitamins.
Solid fats and added sugars are known to excite our taste buds, however they provide nothing but empty calories (e.g. pizzas, conventional pastry and breads, cakes, candy, and other artificial and sugary drinks).
When I hear “empty calorie,” I ask myself what they are empty of? They are empty of a large number of beneficial nutrients we find in natural, whole foods.
Whole foods is greater than the sum of its parts
We live in a society where many no longer recognize what is real whole food and what is an artificial product made of its parts.
We reduced food to one nutrient by thinking only about proteins, sugar, or fats, but we ignore the whole spectrum of health sustaining nutrients we depend on.
We overeat on convenient foods, not realizing that we have overeaten on fats, sugars or salt, which are freely added almost everywhere and created nutritional imbalance along the way.We forget that individual nutrients are not our enemy, but the form in which they come from and thus, their excess, is. These heavily processed foods and drinks promote weight gain and obesity throughout the world and with that, increases our risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancers.
Living in a modern world we can’t always avoid some heavily processed foods on our plates, however having whole foods as a staple is the surest way to regain not only our waistline, but also our health.
A healthy connection with food, where an apple is no longer defined by one of its many nutrients, but by its whole, multi- nutritional package, can have a balanced effect on our body’s overall wellbeing.
Katja Breceljnik is a Clinical Nutritionist who runs the blog More Than An Apple.
She graduated from the California College of Natural Medicine and has received a certificate in NeuroEndocrine Regulation & Anti-Aging. She is a passionate advocate for healthy living in a dirty city.
She has helped many people with both reversing their symptoms and gaining understanding of the connection between their symptoms and the cause.
Main Photo Credit: Joshua Resnick/ shutterstock.com; Second Photo Credit: Iryna Denysova/ shutterstock.com; Third Photo Credit: Joe Gough/ shutterstock.com; Fourth Photo Credit: Monkey Business Images/ shutterstock.com