Be Our Helper And Provider — For All Unemployed
Providing Real, Active Help for the Unemployed
Losing your job stinks. Getting fired, laid off, or going bankrupt – the form it takes doesn’t matter. It feels terrible.
Uncertainty and shame sometimes go hand in hand with unemployment. People who lose their jobs are sometimes unwilling to tell others. They are often unwilling to ask for help. What’s more, sometimes the help they get isn’t really helpful.
Chances are you know someone who needs help. According to the June 2016 employment report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 7.8 million people are currently unemployed in the U.S. That’s about 5 percent of the workforce.
In 2009, during the Great Recession, unemployment peaked at about 10 percent, affecting nearly 16 million Americans.
That’s a lot of people! What can we, as Christians, do to help friends and loved ones who have lost their jobs? Here are four practical actions to take.
Provide Real, Active Help
When we learn someone is looking for a job, we often drop names on them: “Oh, you should talk with John Smith and Jane Jones. I think their companies are hiring.” Then, we walk away feeling we’ve helped, but we really haven’t.
Just dropping names leaves our unemployed friends on their own to figure out how to contact John and Jane, explain their unemployment situation, and then ask for help finding a job.
Real, active help goes beyond dropping names. We should call John and Jane ourselves: “Hey Jane, my friend is looking for a job and is interested in your company. He is someone I really respect and I think he’d be a great fit. Would you mind if I connect the two of you by email?”That is real help. If you are in a position to hire or create jobs in your organization, why not go one step further? Use the position God has given you to create opportunities for others and help them flourish.
In seeking to really, truly help, our unemployed friends, let’s love in word and deed (1 John 3:18). Let’s do things that will actually help them get jobs, and not just the things that make us feel better.
Offer Intentional Encouragement
The uncertainty that accompanies unemployment sometimes leads to fear and anxiety. Can we pay the bills? When will I find a new job? Will we have to move? What impact will this have on my family?
In 1 Thessalonians 5:11, the Apostle Paul exhorts us to encourage one another and build each other up. Let’s be intentional about this with those facing unemployment. Let’s seek them out in the way we would to be pursued if we were in the same situation.
You might find they are angry with God and man for their situation. They may be cynical or down on themselves. They may be having trouble following Paul’s charge to rejoice in all things (Phil. 4:4).
Be gentle and wise with your counsel. Let them tell their stories and talk about their concerns (James 1:19). Be careful not to offer trite, Christian-ese platitudes. At the same time, don’t be afraid to encourage them with songs, hymns, and spiritual songs (Eph. 5:19).
Be Present in Their Lives
Losing a job can be humiliating. The process of networking, telling the story over and over, sending resumes to distant business contacts – these are a constant reminder that you don’t have a job. Talking with close friends and family about job leads (often the best approach to finding a new job) can be particularly difficult.
It’s pretty easy for job hunters to escape to the relative safety and anonymity of their homes and apartments. Unemployment can quickly become a lonely existence as people retreat from their normal gatherings with friends and family.It’s on us, the employed, to seek and show hospitality to the unemployed. In a sense, this is Paul’s charge to us – to use our freedom to love and serve others (Gal. 5:13).
Stay in touch with your unemployed friends. Make an extra effort to visit them. Invite them out to gatherings. Let them know you want them to be there. You might need to be a little more persistent than usual.
Romans 8 reminds us that we are not despised servants of the King. We are servants, but also adopted children. The promise of inheritance is ours.
As sons and daughters of the King of Glory, we can boldly approach his throne (Heb. 4:16). He cares deeply about us and our lives. He hears our prayers.
Let’s ask God to provide jobs for our friends, so they might glorify him with the work of their hands. Let’s ask him to provide them with income so that they might provide for their families. Let’s ask for them to have opportunities to serve God by serving others with all that he has created them to do.
Let’s not hesitate, either. Pray with urgency and confidence. Pray continually (1 Thess. 5:17).
In each of these things – active help, encouragement, presence, and prayer – the burden is on us to make the first step. It’s on us to seek out our unemployed friends and love them in word and deed.
Let’s get after it! If you have other ideas about providing real, active help to the unemployed, we’d love to hear them.
How to Solve Unemployment in a Country: Best Tips
Unemployment is a global issue which happens in developed, under developed and developing countries. The major evidence is that even the developed countries are battling with unemployment issues.
A survey has suggested that in 2013 December, about 6.7% of Americans were unemployed.
The international labor organization has mentioned the statistics of both employed and unemployed in 2012 which states that about 6% of the world population are unemployed and youths are the ones who are unemployed i.e youth unemployment.
The government and individuals should take proper remedy steps to solve unemployment problem and develop the nation’s economy through employment.
What is Unemployment?
Unemployment can be defined as when an individual is hunting for employment and does not find a job, then unemployment arises.
Unemployment is one of the major crisis that happens around. The term unemployment measures the economy’s health.
The unemployment rate is usually used for measuring unemployment. It is usually the unemployed individuals divided by a number of labor force people.The reports as per the international labor organization said that about 200 million globally or about 6% of the complete workforce was unemployed in 2012.
In that manner let’s glimpse through a few aspects of unemployment and the various aspects related to it.
The unemployment rate reached a post during World War II to a high of 9.7% in 1982. The data regarding unemployment and earnings was captured by the Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).
There were other reports too which mentioned unemployment rate of 9.6% in the year 1983 which was due to an economic recession. This was after the great depression of 1983. It was in 1989 that the unemployment rate dropped to 5% but started enhancing again. This led to 6.8% in 1991 and to 7.5% in 1992.
Once there was an enhancement in an economy, the unemployment rate fell to 6.9% in 1993. The good news was that the unemployment rate fell to about 4.5% in 1998 and to 4% in 2000 which was considered as the lowest in three decades.
It was in 2001 that recession crept in and unemployment rates rose again and then the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, in the United States was also a reason of unemployment. By 2003 June, about 9.4 million was unemployed where the unemployment rate was elevated to 6%.
There was again a decline in the unemployment rate from 2003 to 2007. The fluctuation started again and there was a rise in the year 2007 and the unemployment rate was 4.9% in 2008 January. People without a job and looking for work are counted as unemployed.
It does not include people who have lost their jobs and not looking for it.
Causes of Unemployment:
With the many causes of unemployment, the prime causes of unemployment are listed below. People fall under one of these categories as a reason for unemployment. Some of the unemployment causes are as follows:
1. Structural unemployment:
At times when there is a mismatch of skills in work industry this unemployment occurs. Some of them are partitioned as mentioned below.
- Geographical immobility type of unemployment happens due to the difficulty the individual faces in shifting to other regions for a job. For example, jobs may be available in California but it might be tough to get accommodated or find appropriate schooling for children.
- Occupational immobility kind of unemployment occurs when a candidate is unable to learn new skills which need to be applied in the new industry along with a change in technology. A simple example can be that a farmer unable to work in high technological industries.
- There are many industries which possess the labor-saving technology and have led to falling in labor. This has been the main reason for unemployment after the technology has advanced.
- Structural change that happens in a nation is another reason for this unemployment. For example, the weakening of coal mines because of the absence of competitiveness has made a number of coal mine workers unemployed. These people cannot find jobs in any new industries which include computers and technology.
2. Frictional unemployment:
This type of frictional unemployment prevails in many countries. This type of unemployment is the period which is taken by the individuals while they change their job. Examples are graduates who try to find another job. It surely takes time in order to find another job.
3. Real wage or classical unemployment:
This type of unemployment takes place when the wages in the competitive job market moves above equilibrium.
For example, when the supply of labor is higher than the demanded labor, this type of unemployment takes place. Times when trade unions and labor organization bargain for higher wages are when this type of unemployment occurs. This leads to a decline in demand for labor.
4. Voluntary unemployment:
Voluntary kind of unemployment is one where people try to be unemployed than being employed. A simple example can be that if individuals are able to get a good benefit, then they prefer to stay back with the benefit rather than being employed.
Frictional unemployment also falls under this category where individuals tend to choose a job until they wanted an appropriate one.
5. Cyclical unemployment or Demand deficient:
The demand deficient or cyclical unemployment takes place when economy falls below its full capacity. A simple example can be the aggregate demand which falls below at times of recession which leads to weakening in negative economy growth and output.
When there is a drop in the output then the employment of workers will also be less which leads to the development of fewer goods.
There are many firms which move the business and result in redundancies in large-scale. There are more of workers being lay off during recessions which lead to unemployment.
6. Seasonal unemployment:
This is one category of unemployment which takes place due to seasonal change in the job nature. Few industries that are affected by seasonal unemployment are catering industries, fruit picking, tourism, and hospitality.
7. Youth unemployment:
Youth unemployment is another major concern that is happening. 73 million people are globally neither unemployed nor undertaking education.
Youth unemployment is three times ahead of the elders. In the US, the youth unemployment rate is about 5.7% and about 17% of the nation’s youth are jobless.
8. Casual Unemployment:
Casual employments is the type of employment that comes in, for employees who work on a day to day basis or on short term contracts. When the contract is completed, the employee will get unemployed and that type is known as casual unemployment.
This type of unemployment would not stand for long, as the workers get another contract work or the earlier work gets extended. Most of the places where casual employment exists for people are dockyards, market places, film industry (junior artists) etc.
Here the work of the workers gets completed or lasts for just few hours or day long and then they get back to the same unemployment position. This process goes on till they find a permanent job. It is very difficult to provide a definite solution to such casual unemployment issue.
9. Chronic Unemployment:
This type of unemployment is mainly seen in undeveloped countries. When a country is suffering long term of unemployment on a whole, then it is known as chronic unemployment. Some of the main reasons of chronic unemploymennt are,
- Weak economic condition
- Lack of developed resources
- High population growth
- Primitive state of technology
- Low capital formation, etc.
Effects of Unemployment:
Unemployment effects in nations leads to a number of hassles, in that manner let’s glimpse through a few effects of unemployment.
1. Few tax revenues:
Due to unemployment, there are fewer people who work and earn money and hence only less income tax would be collected. There would be a less tax revenue collected by the government and would have a large impact on government finances.
2. High supply side cost:
Due to unemployment, there would be a number of people who do not work. The government needs to teach the employees with skills which are required for the present industry conditions.
So it is the duty of the government to spend by training skills so that they match with the latest industry. This is a drain on the government’s economy due to unemployment.
3. Enhanced welfare cost:
During unemployment period, few people would work but almost all people would claim for benefits.
Due to this, the government money is drained again. The government finance is used for providing benefits for the people.
4. Lower wages:
At times of unemployment, there is increased the supply of labor for employment in firms. In this scenario, there is a decline in wages as there is a number of people ready to work for lower wages.
By this way, the industries have a positive effect and their variable cost would decline.
5. Surplus labor:
Due to impact of unemployment, there are a number of candidates ready to work and hence, the industries have enhanced choice for employment. They choose skilled labors with more experience.
6. Enhanced demand for inferior goods:
Few goods in an economy are purchased more at times of lower income for individuals and these are mentioned as inferior goods.
During unemployment period, people switch over to purchase more of inferior goods due to low income. Inferior goods owner would have a higher profit and sales revenue.
7. Goods and services on less demand:
Unemployment makes individuals avoid buying goods and services as they possess a very low income. In such scenarios, there is lower sales revenue that leads to a decline in profits.
8. Elevated training cost:
Though there are many firms that benefit themselves from low wage cost as a result of unemployment, they also need to spend and train employees as they have been work for a long period.
Training employees are accomplished with the firm’s resources and time hence, there is an increase in the employees cost.
9. Lower living standards:
Private savings and benefits are the only sources which people rely on at times of unemployment. They do not spend much and buy only a fewer goods for their living and hence, they are pushed to a lower standard of living.
10. Loss of depression and confidence:
Unemployment is a period where people are pushed to depression and loss of confidence. Almost all people who are unemployed are lead to stress-related depression and also ill most of the time.
11. Loss of skills:
Skills and capability to work are lost by individuals during unemployment period. The prolonged period a person is unemployed, the more the industries have to train them in order to make them work.
Ways to Solve Unemployment Problem:
Unemployment can be solved if planned properly by the nation from the start. There are a number of ways by which natural rate of unemployment can be solved.
Some possible ways by which the government and the people can work together to solve long term unemployment are
• Ensuring political stability • Enhancing the educational standards • Control of population growth in the nation • Launch of new empowerment programs • Encouraging self-employment/ entrepreneurship • Ensuring access to basic education • Reducing the age of retirement
• Avoid laziness
• Being creative, positive and competitive
• Being positive to stop unemployment.
8 Effective Tips For The Newly Unemployed
Newly Unemployed – Engaging in employment that is productive as well as meaningful is significant for a person’s health and his ability to take part completely in everyday life.
Work helps in providing support to the people for achieving their potential and also gives structure to their day to day routines.
It also helps in meeting the person’s basic financial needs which enables complete participation.
When an unplanned or unexpected loss of job or work is experienced by a person, it affects the general well-being along with the physical and emotional health of not only the worker but his entire family.
A cascading effect results from the loss of work which disrupts the daily routines, weakens the social connections, causes financial instability and also erases the work identity of a person which diminishes his self-worth.
A time of change and uncertainty starts after becoming unemployed. This affects men as well as women of all the socio-economic backgrounds, cultures and races. There is more stress, anxiety as well as worrying regarding the ability of managing the existing difficulties and also of coping with the unknown aspects in future. However, certain tips can be used by the newly unemployed.
8 Effective Tips For Newly Unemployed
You not be feeling shameful in telling people that you are in search of a job. The more the number of people who come to know about it, the better will be your chances of getting a referral. You should tell the people in your network about the kind of job that you are in search of and also about your skills and somebody would be able to provide assistance in securing a new job for you.
When you become unemployed all of a sudden, you will have to make adjustments in your budget to a certain extent and also stretch the severance received by you to the maximum possible extent. You need to lower your bills in order to make only those payments that you need to.
This can mean that you need to cancel the cable and reduce the number of times that you go out for dinner as in the absence of the income that you were getting formerly, these smaller luxuries may stop you from making payments of the larger bills such as the mortgage or the rent. Thus, from your mobile bills to your mortgage, you need to bring down the monthly bills to as low as it is possible humanely. In case you do not have emergency funds that are adequate for helping you tide through the period of job search, then frugality becomes essential.
There are several ways of lowering your bills such as –
- Reducing your energy bills without any cost or sacrifice
- Make changes in your monthly expenses to save money
- For cutting on cell phones, internet and cable, make lesser calls
- Take the decision regarding refinancing for saving on your mortgage
- Eat healthy but save money on your groceries
- Automate your finances as well as change your habits related to spending
For tightening your belt a little, the first thing that you need to do is to cut the expenses on cable. However, you will not miss much on expenses. The fat from the different types of bills can be cut down by availing discounts. If this does not appear to work, you need to call your service providers and explain them about your new circumstances. There are chances that the service providers will help you and work in your favour. There is also a reasonable probability that as you are not working daily, you might have a different usage. For instance, there might not be a need of a larger data package on your mobile or the car insurance can be changed so as to show that you do not a two hour commute any longer.
Whenever you lose your job, you also end up losing your health insurance. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to stay healthy during the unemployment period. At times, the issues related to health may not be in our control but we can make efforts to eat well as sleep well along with exercising regularly.
Many of the people who are unemployed can easily find jobs that are as well-paying as your old jobs. Therefore, they continue to face the choice of either looking for a job that is high paying or take up a job that is low paying. It is not necessary that people take the first offer that they get.However, in case the job is reasonable in terms of benefits, then it is advisable that you take up that job and continue to search for better jobs. Having an income that is lower than what you were getting previously is anytime better than having no income at all.
Apart from full time employment opportunities you can also seek other opportunities of business and contract positions.
After taking care of the cost of living, the time is right to search for a new job. In case you have been working for a while, there are chances that your resume has not been updated. There are also chances that your resume is not updated if you had been working for a long time. You need to rework on your resume for getting it ready for applying for a new job.
You need to update your resume, make it simplified and good-looking and organise it in a way which reflects the type of job that you are searching for.
It is easy to spend time to update the resume; however you should avoid wasting too much time on it. Once everything is settled, you need to head straight and start to apply for the jobs.
It is horrible to lose your job however you should not waste your time by feeling sad about it.
Whenever you are on the lookout for a new opportunity, you have to be confident with respect to the skills that you possess and let the people see that you are awesome.
The more quickly you are able to overcome the initial bitterness, anger and disappointment, the more quickly you will be able to get something better.When you are unemployed, the most important job that you have is to look for another job and therefore you need to focus on that. the type of job that you want, there are a number of options that are available.
It is good to start with the traditional sites such as LinkedIn as well as Craigslist but you can also visit the sites that are less popular Authentic Jobs, Dice, Simply Hired and One Day One Job.
You should not be afraid of switching your career as you progress.
On finding a job that you are really interested in and wish to apply for, you will have to generally have to write a cover letter.
You need to write a cover letter in a way that people will actually read and you need to demonstrate the simple basic skills. A new cover letter needs to be written for every job that you apply for.
At the same time you should also start preparing for the interview.
If income is required by you for your survival, then it should be your priority to find a new income source. When you are looking for a job, it is very helpful to maintain a log.
You can note down the date your resume was submitted to certain companies along with the interview dates as well as the contact information.
It is very important to be organised when you are all of a sudden required to maintain the appointments in several different places.
Once all the technical details related to the filing for unemployment, bringing down your costs of health care, reducing your bills and beginning to apply for new jobs have been completed by you, you will realise that you have a lot of extra time with you. This may appear to be awesome initially but with time the psychological effects of unemployment will begin to show on you.However, there are a number of measures which you can adopt for combating such feelings. The most important thing on which you need to concentrate on is to ensure that you are following a certain type of routine.
Maintaining a schedule when you are unemployed is very essential. This can be done by following set timings for waking up, lunch and other projects.
This will prove to be a great boon for your mental as well as physical well-being.
Even though your schedule will be different from what it was when you were employed, and you will be facing new set of challenges, you need to ensure that you are trying to work towards being productive all the time.
This may mean that even if you have been applying for a number of jobs but have not got anywhere, you are at least able to do something which at the end of the day gives you a feeling of having been productive.
In case you are struggling in finding what you should do with your time, you might volunteer, take on a new skill, find a hobby that is not too costly, start a free routine of workouts or find out some of the ways to make money whenever you are free. You will be okay as long as you are able to do something and not just sit in the house and feel bad about the fact that you have nothing to do.
Being unemployed is an opportunity for you. The constraints that are related to the regular day to day jobs make it difficult to see the things that the future has in store for you in case you are not happy with the path of your career. The steady flow of money along with the silent buzzing of the fluorescent tend to put you in a complacent position.According to a number of people, being unemployed is a kick in the teeth that is needed by a person so that he or she is able to make changes for the positive and in a way you should be thankful that you got such an opportunity. It is difficult to be able to view this initially as the open maw of the unknown at times makes it difficult for a person to breathe freely.
As human beings every day is a struggle for us to wrest control from the universe’s grip and then put it in our very own hands. Such a chance provided by being suddenly unemployed can help us in wresting that control from the universe.
It will make you in charge of the things.
Therefore, instead of being depressed you should focus on keep being positive and utilising this opportunity to refresh yourself so that you are completely ready to take up your next assignment in future.
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Voluntary unemployment is defined as a situation where the unemployed choose not to accept a job at the going wage rate.
Reasons for voluntary unemployment
- Generous unemployment benefits, which make accepting a job less attractive.
- High marginal tax rates, which reduce effective take home pay.
- Unemployed hoping to find a job more suited to skills/qualifications.
- Some jobs are seen as ‘demeaning’ or too tedious. For example, fruit picking/security guard.
e for ‘leisure’ (not working) over working.
Examples of Voluntary Unemployment
In the 1970s and early 1980s, unemployment benefits were relatively high. It was easy to claim benefits by signing on at the local unemployment office every two weeks.
There was no law that you had to accept job offers or lose benefits. In the late 1980s and 1990s, eligibility for unemployment benefits (JSA) has been tightened making it harder for benefit claimants to refuse job offers.
Arguably, this has reduced the incidence of ‘voluntary unemployment.’
Benjamin and Kochin (1979) argued that the new means tested National Insurance scheme of 1920 led to voluntary unemployment in the 1920s and 1930s. They stated high rates of unemployment.
‘was due to operation of an unemployment insurance scheme that paid benefits that were high relative to wages and available subject to few restrictions” 
They argue insurance scheme raised the unemployment rate by five to eight percentage points on average.
- However, Rodney Cross (1982) disputes this. In “How Much Voluntary Unemployment in Interwar Britain?” He points out nearly 3 million claims for unemployment benefits were refused in this period.
- Keynes argued the unemployment of the 1920s was due to deflation, insufficient demand and structural change. In particular, the decision to re-enter the Gold Standard in 1926 led to an overvalued Pound, a decline in exports and depressed demand.
Selective employment. Despite high rates of unemployment, employers can report difficulty in filling labour vacancies in certain sectors. Some jobs teaching and doctors are due to lack of skills.
But, some jobs are hard to fill because they are deemed to be ‘unsuitable or demeaning’. For example, jobs such as fruit picking have low take up rates by native UK workers. Farmers are concerned that a fall in migrant labour will make it hard to find workers to pick the fruit.
Voluntary unemployment is more ly when vacant jobs invoke negative social connotations.
How selective are workers in choosing to reject work?
Workers with higher skills tend to be more selective about job offers. They are more ly to reject low-skilled job offers and hold out for the hope they can get a job more suited to their skills. By contrast, the unemployed with lower skills are more ly to accept jobs quicker. Andrew Dunn who considers voluntary unemployment a serious issue in the UK argues
“that graduates (and not the supposed ‘underclass’) are among the least committed to employment” 
In other words, those with qualifications have the highest expectations of the job market and so are more ly to reject “low-paid, dead end jobs”.
Relationship with other forms of unemployment
Frictional unemployment. Voluntary unemployment has a close relationship with frictional unemployment. Frictional unemployment is the type of unemployment where people are in between jobs – taking the time to find a suitable job.
For example, if an unemployed graduate rejects a job as a shelf-stacker in his first week of unemployment – this is ‘voluntary unemployment’ However, we could easily just call it frictional unemployment as it may take a few months to find a job which requires a degree.
Structural unemployment. If airplanes become fully automated, skilled pilots would lose their jobs. The unemployed pilots may struggle to find jobs in new industries. They may get offered menial work (e.g.
baggage handler) however for a skilled pilot used to job with a certain prestige, they may turn down this ‘menial work’ hoping to get a job with some degree of skill and prestige.
We could then term this situation of unemployed pilots as either ‘structural unemployment’ or ‘voluntary unemployment.
Demand deficient unemployment. Demand deficient unemployment occurs when a fall in economic growth leads to less demand for labour. This has no link to voluntary unemployment as the unemployment is due to insufficient demand in the economy and insufficient job vacancies.However, in times of high unemployment, people may still label it ‘voluntary unemployment.’ In 1931 the UK cut unemployment benefits due to concerns over the budget deficit and the possibility of ‘voluntary unemployment’ But, cutting benefits did nothing to reduce unemployment.
It contributed to a further fall in aggregate demand and unemployment continued to rise.
- However, in times of high unemployment, people may still label it ‘voluntary unemployment.’ In 1931 the UK cut unemployment benefits due to concerns over the budget deficit and the possibility of ‘voluntary unemployment’ But, cutting benefits did nothing to reduce unemployment. It contributed to a further fall in aggregate demand and unemployment continued to rise.
Involuntary unemployment. This is unemployment when workers would to work at current wage rate (or just below) but are prevented (e.g. due to lack of demand, wages kept above equilibrium, trade unions closed shops). See: Involuntary unemployment
Is Voluntary unemployment a suitable term?
‘Voluntary unemployment’ is politically sensitive because it can suggest the unemployed are ‘lazy/work-shy’ It can be used as a justification for cutting unemployment benefits – which may cause poverty. Those on the right are more ly to view unemployment as having a ‘voluntary’ component. Those on the left are more ly to underplay ‘voluntary’ unemployment and point to structural and social factors.
Another issue is that some argue voluntary unemployment means the unemployed are economically inactive. i.e. by choosing to reject work they have left the labour market. This means they would reject every possible job. In practice most voluntary unemployment is selective to particular types of jobs.
Is voluntary unemployment inefficient?
- If the skilled unemployed take the first job offered, it can lead to an inefficient match of skills in the labour force. Sometimes waiting to find a more suitable job can enable a more efficient use of past training and education.
- However, if voluntary unemployment lasts for a long time, this also is a type of economic inefficiency with necessary jobs remaining unfulfilled.
- The cost of unemployment benefits in the UK is just under £5 bn (2014) – a small fraction of total government spending. See: Claimant count
Diagram showing voluntary unemployment
Voluntary unemployment of Q2-Q1.
One way of showing voluntary unemployment is the difference between the Labour Force (those of working age, looking for work) and the Aggregate Supply of Labour AS L (those supplying their labour).
The aggregate supply of labour shows the number of people willing and able to supply their labour in the labour market.
If people turn down jobs on offer, then this is considered to be ‘voluntary unemployment’.
(However, if workers are unable to supply their labour for jobs because they lack the relevant skills (i.e. structural unemployment), then it is misleading to term this voluntary unemployment. If they applied for the job, they would not be accepted because they don’t have the right skills – even though they would be happy to work at that wage rate.
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Martin Luther King, Jr. They say that good writers borrow, and nice writers steal.But within the pre-TurnItIn free for all that was Boston College in the Fifties , MLK didn’t attribute scholarly materials: He represented the ideas of another PhD pupil, Jack Boozer, as his own In 1991, a panel comprised of professors from Boston College confirmed this discovering, chose not to revoke his degree, and attached a letter outlining their findings to the copy of the dissertation within unemployed professors reddit the library. Some have instructed that King got away with it because his professors held him to a low standard anyway due to his race. However think of it this manner: Most people suppose King is a hero, and although he has been proven to be a plagiarist, he nonetheless has a vacation named after him.
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